The law never passed, the communis opinio being that these regulations would have hampered the work of honest archaeologists, while being easily broken by those less morally inclined. Reboul's chapter 7 focuses on J. Carcopino's career as state secretary for education in the Vichy regime. The discussion is still open as to how freely he applied anti-Semitic legislation or why he agreed with the "export" of French works of art towards the German Reich.
It is certain, though, that his laws finally gave French urban archaeology a legislative framework. The core of the text showcases local experiences in rescue archaeology. A case study on preventive archaeology in the Aisne valley chapter 9 , shows the problems it faces after the changes in legislation of The state indirectly encouraged quick survey and superficial trial trenching which very often fail to identify respectably rich Iron Age sites, , whose results were eventually under-interpreted to the effect that many sites were declared non-existent.
Chapter 13 continues the debate in stressing that, as an effect of these very laws, only sites over 5 ha can be automatically trial-trenched even if no archaeological remains are known previously the limit was 1 ha. Blouet also discusses two red herring arguments generally thrown in the face of rescue archaeology: why dig so much, when we can extrapolate from what we have already excavated but is our sample representative?
Similar scandals have accompanied the destruction of the Roman curia from Avignon and that of the Poitiers forum. Just like the outcry around Shakespeare's Rose theatre in the UL, these instances have precipitated public awareness of the urgency of state-enforced rescue archaeology.
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In chapter 14, the goals of rescue archaeology are broadly and lucidly defined as excavation, publication, conservation and management, and "socialisation" public outreach by the archaeology unit of Saint Denis. The story of the biggest preventive dig ever conducted in France: the excavations of the Napoleon courtyard around the Louvre pyramid , budget: some 8 mil Euro is told by director J.
Trombetta chapter 15 , whose fine stratigraphic excavation uncovered there the workshop of the 16 th c. Fleury, and the comparison between the techniques and style of the two teams led to a sartorial, if overblown, media-driven polemic over "left-wing" and "right wing archaeology. One problem with this project appears now to have been not setting aside part of the budget for a "global" as opposed to scattered in many journals publication.
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In any case, this major dig is responsible for the apparition of a wage schedule for "shovel bums," and thus marked the professionalization of rescue archaeology in France. Please click on the reason for your vote: This is not a good example for the translation above.
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The wrong words are highlighted. It does not match my search. It should not be summed up with the orange entries The translation is wrong or of bad quality. Thank you very much for your vote! You helped to increase the quality of our service. Pharmaceuticals Sector" explains Valentin [ The facility in Barcelona met all the [ The key to our energy management [ This achievement was an outcome of the significant commitment of the entire organization, and [ L'accent que [ Peter Stoffer: In other words, [ Formerly, the managing [ The company's zinc business group employs a strategy [ Le business group Zinc poursuit une [ These programs are [ To prepare for the new [ As illustrations of infrastructure, modern refineries are held to be places where "factories" ceased to be singular production facilities, and the management of refineries led to a culture of sites where each site is merely a node in a larger infrastructural process.
The suggestion, then, is to block infrastructure in order to effect change. For the author s , it is essential for revolutionaries, who propose to block or destroy infrastructure, to simultaneously learn that same infrastructure's functions for themselves, so as not to be helplessly dependent on the system which they propose to overthrow. As the chapter's title makes obvious, a criticism of Google runs throughout, and is attended by parallel criticisms of other major internet-based businesses, like Amazon , Facebook and Apple Inc.
However, the author s ' main purpose is to explain current technology in a general way, as it relates to their proposed program of revolution. As one example, Twitter's roots are described in old cellphone apps which protestors used to coordinate during the Republican National Convention. It is observed that the internet and its various companies and services are supplanting traditional governments in various ways. Technology companies and the big data that they use to monitor behavior are characterized as upsetting "the old dualistic Western paradigm where there is the subject and the world, the individual and society",  and replacing that model with human beings who define themselves in terms of their networks and their data.
The author s assess the modern implications for computer technology in daily life, as it relates to the revolution which they propose. Having painted a grim picture of the ubiquity of large-scale, internet-based companies like Google and Facebook, the author s predict that a long-term resentment against "screens" of all kinds will ultimately result in a rejection of such companies, and their products. Technology in general is reconsidered in terms of the word "technique", and tracing the roots of related words: humans at all periods of history have had techniques for manipulating the world in the course of all human endeavors: construction, medicine, war, love, and so forth.
The real concern of the author s is to use a general understanding of technology, and all of its related aspects, for their proposed ends of revolution. Thus the engineer is identified with capitalism and scorned by the author s , while the hacker, with the attendant subversive hacker ethic , is identified as a possible though suspect ally of the author s ' political program. The book's halfway point which motivates its dedication as explained above gives an account of an episode which moved the author s , and had great personal significance for them: "A case that strongly affected us.
On Christmas day, , LulzSec defaced the site of Strafor sic , a "private intelligence" multinational. And we weren't able to do anything, either before or after their arrest. The author s use the example of recent Greek protests to observe that counter-insurgent efforts, backed by states, companies and so on, have historically been successful in quelling the insurrections which the author s promote.
The chapter has a martial theme, juxtaposing the author s ' insurgents against counter-insurgencies. A sharp criticism of pacifism is presented, transitioning from the above modern Greek protests, by pointing out that in ancient Greece, democratic government and the civil, non-violent discourse which it entailed existed side-by-side with the constant readiness of the citizens to make war.
War transcends all categories of life, and has a central psychological component.
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The author s minimize traditional categories of warfare land, holding territory, conventional weapons in favor of a hearts and minds understanding of warfare: if the enemy can be convinced , then conventional tactics of warfare become unnecessary. The author s relate this concept to their own concern, by giving various examples of counter-insurgent theories which are meant to undermine their own political project, and which are being encouraged by states as correctives to the actions with which the author s are sympathetic.
The author s caution against aping their own chosen enemies states, governments, etc , and so becoming symmetrical with them. As counter-examples against symmetry, the author s cite the IRA and various Palestinian organizations, the latter being praised exactly for their fragmentation , a theme expanded in the Committee's next book, Now. The first section introduces these concepts, and advances the idea that states and capitalists have given up on the romantic notion of "uniting" humanity in a grand, totalizing society, and instead have resigned themselves to the idea that society must be bifurcated into productive, value-adding sectors Silicon Valley , yuppies , the urban archipelago , and "the rest" rural backwaters, uncooperative places.
The next section illustrates the negative effects of gentrification, especially as driven by the internet and modern technology, and intimates preferential treatment for the value-adding desirables. Seattle 's local economy is cited as one example: "Now that Seattle has been emptied of its poor people in favor of the futuristic employees of Amazon , Microsoft , and Boeing , the time has come to establish free public transportation there.
SEHEPUNKTE - Rezension von: La fabrique de l'archéologie en France - Ausgabe 10 (), Nr. 9
Surely the city won't go on charging those whose whole life is nothing but value production. That would show a lack of gratitude. For the author s , there are instead simply " worlds ", social ties, friendships, enemies, and so forth, an immediate rhetoric which is expanded in Now. Building on the examples of Tahrir Square and the Paris Commune , communes are asserted to be thriving in the world, and a desirable mode of social organization.
Supporting the line of argument given in the next section, communes are illustrated as oaths among people: "What constitutes the commune is the mutual oath sworn by the inhabitants of a city, a town, or a rural area to stand together as a body. The nature of communes is elaborated a bit further, again with reference to global examples. Communes have first of all a social characteristic, immediately informed by their participants, and secondly a physical characteristic, given by the actual spaces which the communes inhabit.
Today, "official" governments and economies theorize general, abstract "commons" which must be managed : the air, the sea, mental health, etc. These entities also endeavor to manage consumers' co-operatives , communes, and other "alternative" forms within their own administrations. The author s reject such management efforts, as being counter-revolutionary. The experience of being in a commune is pleasurable, and gives meaning to life.
Next to this, contemporary life is "intolerable". Following a brief description of the Susa Valley protests in Italy, the author s sketch a history of anti-globalization. Although the latter is presented as "the last worldwide offensive organized against capital",  the author s judge it to have been ineffectual thus far.
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Still, they are confident that like-minded people can be found everywhere in the world, with whom to find common cause. Instead of repairing to "naming the enemy" as a source of unity, the author s propose that such like-minded people should find each other, and thus achieve solidarity through social interaction and the forming of ties. The fragmentation of such informal social ties is framed as a positive strength because such fragmentation makes it more difficult for a government, the police, etc, to identify and attack a single entity , a theme which is central to the Committee's next book, Now.
As a ready response for concerns about the fragmentation just described, the chapter illustrates the capacity of revolutionaries to spontaneously self-organize, as in the case of Tahrir Square. In closing, the chapter adominishes revolutionaries to take care of their own power and pay attention to it, such as it is. In a brief afterword, the author s regret that they felt it necessary to make the book as long as they did, and promise to remain active. But it was necessary to untangle the skein of the present, and in places to settle accounts with ancient falsehoods.
In the coming years, we'll be wherever the fires are lit. The Invisible Committee's third book, Now , consists of seven chapters. A synopsis of the book is given below. The opening chapter describes a general disgust with social and political life in the mid- s , particularly the French Presidential Election and the United States Presidential Election. As one positive alternative to the malaise being sketched, the chapter considers that rioting has a positive possibility for the rioters in that the shared experience can create meaningful bonds: "Those who dwell on images of violence miss everything that's involved in the fact of taking the risk together of breaking, of tagging, of confronting the cops.
One never comes out of one's first riot unchanged.