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Seller Inventory KOC Published by Fabbri Ed. About this Item: Fabbri Ed. A cura di Sergio Moravia. I Classici del Pensiero. Newton's reflector , the first reflecting telescope. Clay models of animal livers dating between the nineteenth and eighteenth centuries BCE, found in the royal palace at Mari.

Mesopotamian clay tablet, BC.

The Sign of the Four

Writing allowed the recording of astronomical information. Plato's Academy. Engineering is the application of knowledge in the form of science, mathematics, and empirical evidence, to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations. The InSight lander with solar panels deployed in a cleanroom. The steam engine , a major driver in the Industrial Revolution , underscores the importance of engineering in modern history.

This beam engine is on display in the Technical University of Madrid. A water-powered mine hoist used for raising ore, ca. Offshore platform, Gulf of Mexico. Charles Sanders Peirce was an American philosopher, logician, mathematician, and scientist who is sometimes known as "the father of pragmatism". He was educated as a chemist and employed as a scientist for thirty years. Peirce's birthplace.

The ratio of one's speed to that of sound is named the Mach number in his honor. Ernst Mach's historic photograph shadowgraph of a bow shockwave around a supersonic bullet. Spinning chair devised by Mach to investigate the experience of motion. Positivism is a philosophical theory stating that certain knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations. Thus, information derived from sensory experience, interpreted through reason and logic, forms the exclusive source of all certain knowledge.

Auguste Comte. Moritz Schlick , the founding father of logical positivism and the Vienna Circle. William James was an American philosopher and psychologist, and the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States. James was a leading thinker of the late nineteenth century, one of the most influential U. Diogenes Laertius is a principal source for the history of ancient Greek philosophy. Portrait by Christoph Bernhard Francke. Leibniz's correspondence, papers and notes from to , National Library of Poland. A page from Leibniz's manuscript of the Monadology.


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Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, essayist, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate. Childhood home, Pembroke Lodge. Psychology includes the study of conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought. Wilhelm Wundt seated with colleagues in his psychological laboratory, the first of its kind. One of the dogs used in Pavlov's experiment with a surgically implanted cannula to measure saliva tion, preserved in the Pavlov Museum in Ryazan , Russia.

Skinner's teaching machine , a mechanical invention to automate the task of programmed instruction. Social psychology studies the nature and causes of social behavior. Geometry is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.

A mathematician who works in the field of geometry is called a geometer. A Europe an and an Arab practicing geometry in the 15th century. Woman teaching geometry. Illustration at the beginning of a medieval translation of Euclid's Elements , c.

Visual checking of the Pythagorean theorem for the 3, 4, 5 triangle as in the Zhoubi Suanjing — BC. The Pythagorean theorem is a consequence of the Euclidean metric. Aristotle was a philosopher during the Classical period in Ancient Greece, the founder of the Lyceum and the Peripatetic school of philosophy and Aristotelian tradition.

Roman copy in marble of a Greek bronze bust of Aristotle by Lysippos , c. School of Aristotle in Mieza , Macedonia, Greece. Aristotle argued that a capability like playing the flute could be acquired — the potential made actual — by learning. The Victorious Youth c. Early Athenian coin, depicting the head of Athena on the obverse and her owl on the reverse—5th century BC.

Galileo Galilei was an Italian astronomer, physicist and engineer, sometimes described as a polymath. Portrait of Galileo Galilei , by Justus Sustermans. Galileo's beloved elder daughter, Virginia Sister Maria Celeste , was particularly devoted to her father. She is buried with him in his tomb in the Basilica of Santa Croce, Florence. Galileo Galilei, portrait by Tintoretto. Cristiano Banti 's painting Galileo facing the Roman Inquisition. Euclid, sometimes given the name Euclid of Alexandria to distinguish him from Euclides of Megara, was a Greek mathematician, often referred to as the "founder of geometry" or the "father of geometry".

Bramante as Euclid or Archimedes in the School of Athens. The diagram accompanies Book II, Proposition 5. College Hall, within the 16th century St Mary's College building. The "Gateway" building, built in and now used for the university's management department. Crema is a city and comune in the province of Cremona, in the region of Lombardy in northern Italy. It is built along the river Serio at 43 kilometres from Cremona. Giuseppe Peano was an Italian mathematician and glottologist.

Vailati, Giovanni 1863-1909

The author of over books and papers, he was a founder of mathematical logic and set theory, to which he contributed much notation. Giuseppe Peano and his wife Carola Crosio in Portrait of Berkeley by John Smybert , George Edward Moore was an English philosopher. He was, with Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein, and Gottlob Frege, one of the founders of the analytic tradition in philosophy.

Gravestone of philosopher G. Moore and wife Dorothy Moore. Stanford University has many centers and institutes dedicated to the study of various specific topics. Vailati's very individual position within that process helps to account for the long silence about his work, some other reasons being the scattered nature of his publications, the fact that he was in advance of his time, and the intervention of World War I and Italian fascism.

As a historian Vailati dealt chiefly with mechanics, logic, and geometry. He made important contributions to the study of post-Aristotelian Greek mechanics, of Galileo Galilei's forerunners, of definition in Plato and Euclid, of the influence of mathematics on logic and epistemology, and of Gerolamo Saccheri's work in logic and in non-Euclidean geometry. He gave a remarkable representation much more than a translation of Book A of Aristotle's Metaphysics. He was particularly interested in the dialectic of continuity and change, in how "the same" problems are faced and solved in different ways in different periods; which, owing to his constant interest in language, meant that he traced the history of the relations between concepts and terms.

Vailati's work as a historian and as an analytical philosopher were closely interwoven; they are two applications of the same attitudes and methods. He saw the difference between theoretical and historical research not so much in their subject matters as in their approach to their subject matters. Philosophers and scientists, he held, should cooperate in historical research and remember that no history is complete unless the social background of ideas is taken into account.

In science, past results are not "destroyed" by new ones, for new results make old ones even more important in the very process of superseding them. By his awareness of the importance and his command of the methodology of historical research, Vailati avoided the abstract ahistorical atmosphere and the scientifically biased attitude of many logical positivists.

Vailati wrote some early papers in symbolic logic , but he was chiefly interested in the function of logic within philosophy. He attacked confusions between logic and psychology and between logic and epistemology. Vailati's thought cannot be completely evaluated until the hundreds of letters he wrote to Mach, Brentano, Peano, Croce, Volterra, Giovanni Papini, Prezzolini, Giovanni Vacca, and many others, are published. Many concern topics not dealt with in the Scritti. These letters constitute one of the last large scientific correspondences of the eighteenth-century kind.

They will throw new light on the intellectual history of Europe around and possibly establish connections hitherto unnoticed or only suspected. Vailati's manuscripts some still unpublished and many of the letters he received are in the Institute for the History of Philosophy of the State University of Milan. The only almost-complete edition of his papers is the Scritti Florence, , which was followed by two anthologies: Gli strumenti della conoscenza, edited by Mario Calderoni Lanciano, , and Il pragmatismo, edited by Giovanni Papini Lanciano, Il pragmatismo includes a completion of Vailati's notes for a book on pragmatism.

Some of his best essays were first reprinted in Il metodo della filosofia, edited by Ferruccio Rossi-Landi Bari, , and in Scritti di metodologia scientifica e di analisi del linguaggio, edited by M. Sciacca Milan, Complete collections of the philosophical papers and of the correspondence are in preparation. The first contemporary scholar to point out Vailati's importance was Eugenio Garin, in ; see his Cronache di filosofia italiana Bari: Laterza, , Ch.


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