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In caso di ulteriori domande, siamo a Sua completa disposizione. Vous pouvez consulter celui-ci sur www. Informations pour les vendeurs. Die Sammlung Prof. Im Nachkriegsdeutschland ist er. His areas of interest covered the earliest beginnings of the Egyptian and Near Eastern cultures up to the first works of Greek art. But his greatest passion was dedicated to the artistic creativity of the indigenous peoples of Latin America. There his collection offers a wide range of cultural productions both in the fields of stone working and ceramic works. More than , in part extensive lots offered in this catalogue give an expression of the exceptional material which Professor Marschall had assembled with great connoisseurship over many years.
These objects may appear strange reflecting the own work of an architect like Professor Marschall who started his career very promising. The acquisition of his private collection might have provided balance and inspiration for an active and creative working person. Gesichter der Artemis und Athena. Auf der Vs. Auf der Rs. Begrenzt werden die Bilderfelder oben von einem Zungenstab und seitlich jeweils von einem doppelten Efeuband. Provenienz: Aus der Sammlung Dr. Juli , Publiziert: BAPD Das Produkt dieser Beziehung war der Minotauros.
Dieser konnte erst durch die Intervention des Zeus beigelegt werden. Boardman, Schwarzfigurige Vasen aus. Ein Handbuch 4. Zu den Heraklesdarstellungen s. Kretischer Stier ; S. On side A the struggle of the tripod between Apoll and Herakles, Apoll is accompanied by his sister Artemis and Hermes while Athena on the right side assists the hero.
On side B Herakles captures the Cretan Bull the seventh labour , above his bow and quiver, on either side male figures with spears Iolaos and King Minos? Palmettes on the handles, on the rim band of pointed leaves, outside the rim and to the sides of the picture panels double bands of ivy, above each panel a frieze of tongues and rays above the foot.
One scratch, few little splinters of the surface are missing, otherwise intact. Um v. Als einer der wenigen. Maler dieser Zeit versuchte er sich jedoch in beiden Techniken und bemalte seinen Vasen auch in der neuen rotfigurigen Technik, mit der er bisweilen jedoch kleine Schwierigkeiten hatte. Boardman, Schwarzfigurige Vasen aus Athen. Die archaische Zeit S. Robertson, The art of vase-painting in classical Athens S. In der Folge wurden er und Hephaistos in den Kreis der Olympier aufgenommen.
Attic black-figure pelike of the Nikoxenos Painter. About B. On side B Athena standing between the seated Dionysos on the left and Hermes on the right. Between the figures vine. Above the pictures on both sides three rows of pomegranates. One handle and few splinters of the surface are reattached, few little retouched spots, otherwise intact. Beautiful vase of the latest generation of black-figure vase-painters with an interesting mythological subject! With a certificate of the Galerie Puhze, Freiburg copy!
Vor ihm steht ein Satyr, der einen heute verlorenen Doppelaulos spielt. Die Bildfelder werden seitlich jeweils von einer doppelten Punktreihe und oben von einem Zungenstab begrenzt. Beiliegend ein handschriftlicher Zettel, nach dem Beazley den Krater dem Schweine-Maler zugeordnet hat!
Aus zahlreichen Fragmenten zusammengesetzt, dabei einige, teilweise retuschierte Fehlstellen. Provenienz: Ex Sammlung Professor Dr. Boardman, Rotfigurige Vasen aus Athen. Attic red-figure column-krater of a Mannerist. On side A Dionysos with kantharos and branch between a maenad who is playing a cithara and a satyr playing the double-flute. On side B further members of the thiasos: in the middle a maenad with flute between two dancing satyrs.
Palmettes on the handles, on the rim and on the neck bands of pointed leaves, outside the rim and to the sides of the panels double bands of dots, above each panel a frieze of tongues and rays above the foot. Reassembled from fragments, several missing areas are retouched. The lot is accompanied by a handwritten note that saying Beazley had attributed the krater to the Pig Painter! Die Bildfelder werden seitlich jeweils von einer doppelten Punktreihe u. Den Hals ziert auf der Vs. Provenienz: von Dr. Publiziert: J. Zum Maler s. ARV ff. Die klassische Zeit Abb. Robertson, The art of vasepainting in classical Athens S.
Zu antiken Vasenreparaturen s. Bentz u. Ausstellung Bonn S. Attic red-figure column-krater of the Painter of the Louvre Centauromachy. On side A two pairs of maenads and satyrs. The maenads are holding thyrsoi, one of them furthermore a kantharos. Each approached by a satyr from the right, who puts his hand on her shoulder. One of the satyrs is carrying a wine-skin.
On side B a draped youth is watching while his two companions are dancing. The youth in the middle holds a large skyphos. Above of the picture panel a frieze of tongues and to the sides a double band of ivy. Outside of the rim animals in black silhouette-technique. Reassembled from fragments, only few small missing areas which are retouched regarding the figures only the head of the right satyr is modern.
This piece was bought for a Munich Private Collection in and shortly afterwards attributed by Beazley! Beautiful vase of the Parthenon period! Sonderform der Hydria mit abgerundeter Schulter Kalpis. Darunter liegen verwundet eine weitere Amazone und ein Krieger. Zu den Kertscher Vasen allgemein s. Die klassische Zeit S. Kertscher Vasen [St. Zum Amazonen-Maler s. ARV2 ff. So wundert es nicht, dass die Bewohner der pontischen Region besonderes Interesse an diesem Mythos hatten. Es liegt nahe, im Amazonenmythos einen Gegenentwurf zu der griechischen Polisgesellschaft mit ihrer.
Late Attic red-figure hydria of the Amazon Painter so-called Kerch style. On the front the fight between an amazon on horseback in the middle and two greek warriors, below a wounded amazon and a warrior. The rest of the corpus is painted with large palmettes. Below the figures and on the rim egg-and-dart, on the shoulder a band of hanging leaves. Figures and ornaments are lavishly decorated with polychrome colours and added gold. Foot is broken and reattached, one splinter of the surface of the shoulder is missing, otherwise intact, colours and gold are partially peeled off.
Mit Zertifikat des Art Loss Register! Benannt ist er nach der Kleinstadt Pisticci westlich von Metapont, wo mehrere seiner Vasen gefunden wurden. Trendall, Rotfigurige Vasen aus Unteritalien und Sizilien. Ein Handbuch 21 ff. Early Lucanian red-figure bell-crater of the Pisticci Painter. On side A a slightly prostrated satyr presenting a thyrsos to a young woman on the right side. Behind him his fellow who is pushing him forward.
On side B three draped youths. Below the figures a maeander and below the lip a laurel-wreath. Except two tiny split-offs at the foot intact. Marvelous image of satyrs! With certificate of The Art Loss Register! Lucanian red-figure hydria with rounded shoulder kalpis , Forerunner of the Creusa Painter.
On the front a draped youth and a naked youth who is sitting on a rock. Below a maeander, on the neck a laurelbranch. Reassembled from large fragments, two small fragments are missing, one some bigger hole, this all outside of the figures, few little split-offs, rest of sinter.
Mit Gutachten von P. Provenienz: Aus der westdeutschen Sammlung H. Stolz, Trier. Publiziert und zugewiesen in: K. RVAp I S. On the front side a young woman who is carrying a large basket full of food on her head and is pouring wine in a kantharos of a seated youth with spear and shield. He is dressed with an elaborate waistcoat. Behind him a further youth in a similar dress with spear and shield who is holding a torch.
On the back side three draped youths. The picture panels are framed on top by a frieze of tongues, on the sides by double bands of dots and below by a maeander. On the rim a band of waves and on the handles palmettes. Tiny splinters at the rim are missing, on the back at few spots slightly rubbed, otherwise intact, rest of sinter. The lot is accompanied by a certificate of P. Cumae A Apulisierende Gruppe , - v. Zum APZ-Maler s. LCS ff. Campanian bell krater of the APZ Painter.
Cumae A Apulianizing Group , - B. On one side a young woman with cista, in front of her a sitting naked youth with mirror, on the other side two draped youths. On the sides large palmettes, below a band of waves, under the rim a laurelwreath. Little fragment of the foot is missing, inside below the rim a rubbed area, the black glaze is at few spots brittle or flaked off, otherwise intact, rest of sinter.
Beidseitig Frauenkopf mit Sakkos zwischen Ranken. Unter den Henkeln Palmetten. Provenienz: Aus der Sammlung von Dr. Uwe Dams, Oberpfalz, erworben zwischen und Die T. Apulian red-figure bell-krater of T. On both sides the head of a woman with sakkos between tendrils. Below the figure panels and below the lip ornaments composed of angles. Below the handles palmettes.
Reassembled from fragments, few missing parts at the cracks are retouched. Form mit zylindrischem Corpus. Vor ihrem Kopf schwebt ein kleines Eidolon. Provenienz: Ex Sammlung J. Zum Maler und seinem Umfeld s. Attic white-ground and polychrome painted cylindrical lekythos, Manner of the Woman Painter. On the corpus a young woman is standing on the left side of a stele and holding two wreaths in a basket. In front of her head a little winged eidolon flying to the stele which is crowned by large acanthus-leaves.
On the right side a draped man leaning on his stick. Above a maeander and on the shoulder in black and red a palmette-ornament. The mouth is restored, few little missing parts are modern and retouched, the colour is flaked off or rubbed at few spots, otherwise intact. Zwischen den Figuren Scheininschriften. Auf der Schulter ein Fries aus alternierenden Palmetten. Mormino CVA 1 Taf. Boardman, Schwarzfigurige Vasen aus Athen 4. Auflage S. Attic white-ground and black-figure cylindrical lekythos of the Athena Painter. Gigantomachy: Athena fights again three giants. On the shoulder black palmettes.
Reassembled from fragments, few modern and retouched areas, the surface of one spot is severely chipped, below the painting is partially rubbed off. Auf der Schulter doppelter Strahlenkranz. Provenienz: Aus der Privatsammlung C. Attic white-ground and black-figure cylindrical lekythos, Workshop of the Beldam Painter.
On the front of the corpus between cross-barred bands an ivy-corymbs-tendril. On the shoulder two circles of rays. Tiny splinters of the mouth are missing, the colour is flaked off at few areas. Viertel 5. Auf der Schulter Strahlenkranz. Attic cylindrical lekythos. On the corpus a broad white-grounded band, on it black palmettes between rows of dots. On the shoulder rays. Surface of a part of the mouth rubbed off, otherwise intact. Attic white-ground and black-figure cylindrical lekythos, Circle of the Aischines Painter. On the corpus a Nike with torch, above a maeander, on the shoulder two circles of rays.
Mouth is missing, foot is modern, a small hole behind the head is filled up, the colour is partially rubbed. Once in the Collection of Lord Elgin! Beide tragen im hochgesteckten Haar ein Haarband. Attic red-figure cylindrical lekythos of the Aischines Painter. On the corpus between two maeanders two women standing with outstrechted arms and looking to each other, the right one holding a mirror. Mouth is broken and reattached, few little splinters are missing, otherwise intact.
Glanzton an einigen Stellen etwas verrieben, sonst intakt. Attic red-figure cylindrical lekythos. On the corpus a youth with chlamys, petasos and spear standing in front of an altar? The black glaze is rubbed off at few spots, otherwise intact. Farbe an ganz wenigen kleinen Stellen etwas verrieben, sonst intakt. Hans B. Jessen , ehem. On the corpus between two bands of egg pattern a young woman with alabastron, before her a stool.
The colour is at few tiny spots slightly rubbed, otherwise intact. Young woman holding a distaff above a kalathos. Reassembled from large fragments, cracks slightly retouched, tiny splinters of the surface are flaked off, the surface at the mouth is partially rubbed. With a copy of the expert report of the Galerie Antiker Kunst, Hamburg from ! The corpus is covered with black glaze. Few little splinters of mouth and foot are missing, otherwise intact.
Auf der Schulter alternierende Palmetten, der Corpus mit Glanzton gedeckt. Auf der Schulter Strahlenkranz, auf dem Corpus zwei Palmetten. Mit den Kaufrechnungen Kopien! Two Attic lekythoi. With invoices copies! H 12,7cm. Faliscan pseudo red-figure with added red color chous of the Sokra Group. Young woman beside a kalathos. The mouth is reassembled with retouched areas, otherwise intact. H 11,3cm. Small Etruscan pseudo red-figure oinochoe with added red. On the front a draped youth with stick, at the back palmette, blossoms and tendrils. Tiny splitters of the rim are missing, otherwise intact.
From the Collection of the German archaeologist Ernst Langlotz - Letztes Viertel 5. Wahrscheinlich wurden zu diesem Anlass diese kleinen Oinochoen hergestellt. Attic miniature chous. Last quarter 5th century B. Little boy running with his toy rattle? Little splinters of mouth and foot are missing, otherwise intact. Drittel 5.
Rotfigurige Bauchlekythos. Mit Zertifikat Kopie! Provenienz: Aus der Sammlung A. Thomson, USA. Attic red-figure squat lekythos. On the corpus a young woman in front of a box, above a garment hanging at the wall. Handle is broken and reattached, missing part of the mouth is modern and retouched. With certificate copy! Viertel 4. H 7,3cm. Auf dem Corpus der Kopf einer jungen Frau mit Sakkos.
Glanzton stellenweise abgeplatzt, sonst intakt. On the corpus the head of a young woman with sakkos. Tiny flakes of the black glaze are chipped off, otherwise intact. Auf der Schulter ein liegender Panther, auf der anderen Seite ein Schwan. Attic red-figure askos. On the shoulder a lying panther and swan. Two fragments are broken and reattached complete , otherwise in a good state. Schlanke Halsamphora.
Wenige kleine Absplitterungen, sonst intakt. RVP S. On side A a young woman with mirror and a naked youth with thyrsos, on side B a semi-nude woman with wreath and tainia who is sitting on a rock.
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Below the handles large palmettes, and below the figures a band of waves. On the shoulder laurel-branches, and on the neck on side A the head of a woman with sakkos and on side B a palmette. Only few little splinters are missing, otherwise intact. Cumae, - v. H 42,1cm. Dazwischen Volutenornamente, darunter Wellenband. Intakt mit Sinterresten. Campanian red-figure bail amphora of the CA Painter. Cumae, - B. On side A a young woman is offering a bowl with fruits to a naked warrior.
On the backside a seated young woman with tympanon and bowl and a draped youth, between them an altar. Intact with rest of sinter. H 37,3cm. Campanian bail amphora of the APZ Painter. On one side a young woman with bowl, on the other side a draped youth. Between the figures large palmettes, above band of waves.
Rest of sinter, tiny splinters of the rim and the bail are missing. Im Corpus ein wohl bereits antikes Loch. Dazu eine daunische Kanne mit Tropfenmetopen auf der Schulter. H 22,6cm. Faliscan red-figure jug with beak-shaped spout. On the corpus between tendrils the head of a woman with sakkos. On the back and the neck each a palmette. Beside the head a probably ancient hole.
The white colour at the head is mostly missing, little scratches, otherwise intact. With note of the owner and an attribution to the Populonia Torcup Painter! Plus a Daunian jug with ornaments in form of drops on the shoulder. Two fragments of the rim are broken and reattached, one splinter of the handle is missing, otherwise intact.
Provenienz: Aus der Privatsammlung T. Apulian red-figure kothon. On the corpus the head of a woman with sakkos, palmette and tendrils. With a handwriting note that the vase was sold to Dottore Zilsi! H 25cm. Mit der Rechnung von Dorotheum, Wien Kopie! Henkel gebrochen und wieder angesetzt, wenige kleine Abplatzungen des Glanztons, sonst intakt. Provenienz: Seit in der Privatsammlung C.
Apulian red-figure oinochoe shape 1. On the front the head of a young woman with sakkos, at the back palmette and tendrils, on the shoulder band of waves and on the neck white rays. The handle is broken and reattached, the black glaze is flaked off at few tiny spots, otherwise intact. With the invoice of Dorotheum, Vienna from copy!
H 23,2cm. Palmette und Ranken. On the front the head of a young woman with sakkos, at the back palmette and tendrils. The handle is broken three times and reattached, one part of restored handle is not belonging, one fragment of the foot is missing. Canosa, letzte Drittel 4. H 23,3cm. Polychrome Malerei in Rot, Gelb und Schwarz auf Provenienz: Aus der Privatsammlung H. Apulian polychrome oinochoe shape 1. Canosa, last third 4th century B. Red, yellow and black painting on white slip.
On the corpus in black and red a laurel-wreath and above a band of red rhombi on yellow ground, on the shoulder a red maeander and on the neck a yellow line and above red rays. Handle is broken and reattached, little splinters of the mouth and foot are missing, the colour is at few little spots rubbed but otherwise in a very good condition. H 16,9cm. Schnabelkanne mit ovoidem Corpus und hohem Henkel, seitlich daran Frauenkopfappliken.
Apulian red-figure epichysis. On the front a seated young woman with large bowl and grape, at the back palmette and tendrils. Side of the handle two plastic moulded heads of women. Spout and handle are broken and reattached, one little fragment of the foot is missing, otherwise in good condition. Schnabelkanne mit Corpus in Pyxisform und hohem Henkel, seitlich daran Frauenkopfappliken. Das Ganze ist umrandet von einem Eierstab auf dem Rand.
CS1 uses Arabic-language script (ar)
Zwei winzige Absplitterungen am Rand und der Standplatte, sonst in hervorragender Erhaltung. On the shoulder a young woman lying on the ground and holding a mirror and a branch, on the back tendrils and a palmette on the handle, all surrounded by a band of egg-and-dart. Below on the corpus a laurel-branch in white colour. Laterally at the handle two plastic moulded heads of women.
Two little splinters of the rim and stand are missing, otherwise in very good condition. Auf der Unterseite ein Kreuz aus roter Farbe. Eine Absplitterung am Rand, sonst intakt. On the shoulder a flying Eros and tendrils surrounded by a band of egg-and-dart. Below on the corpus a incised tendril with white leaves. Underneath a cross made of red colour. One little fragment of the rim is missing, otherwise intact. Kugelige Pyxis. Zu dem Landeskonservator vom Hessen Friedrich Bleibaum - s. Los Zum PateraMaler s. Zu dem Patera-Maler und seinem Umkreis s.
RVAp II ff. Apulian red-figure spherical pyxis with lid, Workshop of the Patera Painter. On the lid the head of a woman in white colour rised from a calyx of leaves, around fanciful tendrils. On the bowl on both sides the heads of a woman between palmettes and tendrils. Im Inneren ein kleiner tongrundiger Tondo mit einem Kreis in der Mitte. Rechnung Kopie von Aspendos, Berlin von beiliegend! Zusammengesetzt aus Fragmenten, an den Bruchkanten kleine Retuschen, einige kleine Absplitterungen des Glanztons.
On both sides the struggle of Heracles and the fish-bodied Nereus between Nereids, the daughters of Nereus. Above on the rim a double ivy-frieze, above the foot red and black dots and lines. Reassembled from fragments, at the cracks only few little retouched areas, the black glaze is flaked off at several tiny spots. With invoice of Aspendos, Berlin from copy! Mit handschriftlicher Rechnung von Kopie! Wenige winzige Abplatzungen, sonst intakt. Large Attic red-figure skyphos. On both sides a draped, bearded man with an athlete, on one side a javelin thrower, on the other side a hoplitodromast putting on one of his greaves.
Below the handles palmettes and tendrils, below the rim egg-and-dart. Few tiny splinters are flaked off, otherwise intact. With handwritten invoice from copy! Capua I, - v. Ein Henkel gebrochen und wieder angesetzt, wenige winzige Absplitterungen. Stapel, Paderborn; davor in einer Privatsammlung in Freiburg. LCS f. Campanian red-figure skyphos, near of the Painter of BM F Capua I, - B.
On both sides the head of a woman with sakkos, between them palmettes and tendrils. One handle is broken and reattached, few tiny splinters are missing. Letztes Viertel 4. Ein Henkel gebrochen und wieder angesetzt, winzige Absplitterungen am Rand. Faliscan red-figure skyphos. Last quarter 4th century B. On one side a lying naked woman with mirror and branch, on the other side two women heads face to face, inbetween small tendrils and white dotted rosettes.
One handle is broken and reattached, tiny splinter of the rim missing. Beidseitig stehende Eule zwischen Olivenzweigen. Attic red-figure skyphos. On the corpus on both sides an owl between laurelbranches. One little fragment of the lip is broken and reattached, tiny splinter is missing, the black glaze is rubbed at the handles. Beide Henkel gebrochen und wieder angesetzt, dabei bei einem Henkel kleine retuschierte Fehlstelle. Provenienz: Aus der Privatsammlung V. On the corpus on both sides an owl between laurel-branches.
Both handles are broken and reattached, at one handle little modern and retouched area. Seitlich der Henkel je eine Palmette, dazwischen auf beiden Seiten ein Schwan. Attic black-figure skyphos. Between palmettes on both sides swan. Tiny splinter of the foot is missing, otherwise intact. Drittel 6. Schwarzfigurig, Details in Rot. Italo-Corinthian black-figure sperical pyxis. On the corpus between lines four motifs composed of concentric black and red circles.
Inbetween hanging lotus and dotted rosettes. In the lip two pairs of holes for mounting. One small fragment of the lip is broken and reattached, little part is missing, one large crack, surface at one spot and partially the colour are rubbed off, rest of sinter. Mittelkorinthisch, - v. Vier Fragmente im Bereich eines Henkels gebrochen und wieder angesetzt, Farbe an einer Stelle etwas verrieben.
Middle Corinthian black-figure kothon. Above the foot rays. On the corpus between rows of dots a frieze with animals: sphinx, panther, swan and another panther, between rosettes. Below the rim a frieze of birds in silhouette technique. Four fragments in the area of one handle are broken and reattached, the colour is one side below the rim slightly rubbed. Early Corinthian black-figure aryballos.
On the bottom a whirligig. On the corpus a winged man with two birds in his hands. On the mouth a circle of leaves. Reassembled from fragments, few missing parts are retouched and overpainted, part of the mouth is missing. With the corresponding catalogue pages and the invoice of the Kunsthaus am Museum, Cologne copies!
Part of the lip about two third are modern and retouched, few little scratches. On the corpus only at the front frieze of figures: fight between two hoplits, between rosettes. On the shoulder and the mouth a circle of leaves. Tiny splinter of the mouth is missing, the colour is rubbed off at one spot, otherwise intact, below thick rest of sinter.
Glanzton an wenigen Stellen etwas verrieben, sonst intakt. Scheibler, JdI 79, , S. Clark u. Late Corinthian exaleiptron formerly often called kothon or plemochoe. Late 6th century B. On the shoulder between lines a maeander. The colour is at few areas slightly rubbed, otherwise intact. Im oberen Bereich einige wenige kleine Absplitterungen, sonst intakt. Campanian black-glazed kernos with four little pots and four protomes in form of women-heads.
Late 4th century B. Few little splinters in the range of the upper part are missing, otherwise intact. Glanztonware mit geripptem Corpus und hohem, profilierten Ausguss. Provenienz: Aus der rheinischen Privatsammlung Dr. Dittmer, erworben vor Apulian black-glazed guttus with ribbed corpus and long spout. Above the plastically moulded head of the bearded Dionysos with wild hair and ivy-wreath. Tiny splinters of the surface are missing, otherwise intact. Above the plastically moulded head of a woman with untamed hair Gorgo or maenad.
The black glaze is flaked off at few spots, which are mostly retouched, otherwise intact. Above the plastically moulded head of a young satyr. Tiny splinters of the surface are missing, otherwise intact, rest of sinter. Above a plastically moulded scene: a horseman is fighting against a warrior who is lying on the ground and trying to defend himself with his shield. One little splinter of the mouth is missing, otherwise intact. Paralipomena 81; J. Paralipomena 80 ff. Inside two small circles. Outside on both sides a fight between two warriors who are accompanied by a draped youth.
Reassembled from large fragments, few little retouched areas at the cracks, otherwise in perfect condition. Mit einem Schreiben von Donna C. Kurtz, Beazley Archive, von und einer Beschreibung des ehemaligen Besitzers! Attic black-figure stemless cup of the type C of the Leafless Group. Inside a small tondo with a crouching satyr holding a rhyton. Reassembled from few large sherds, two little areas at the rim are modern and retouched. With a letter from Donna C. Kurtz, Beazley Archive dated and an interesting description of the former owner!
Aus Fragmenten zusammengesetzt, an den Bruchkanten einige Retuschen. Attic red-figure cup of the Euaion Painter. Stemless cup with offset rim and ringfoot. Inside a tondo with athlete holding a strigilis between two pillars on base. Reassembled from fragments, at the cracks few modern and retouched spots. Schale mit Omega-Henkeln u.
Auf der Oberseite des Deckels umlaufend ein Figurenfries. Deckelknauf gebrochen und wieder angesetzt, wenige kleine Absplitterungen, sonst intakt. Large Paestan red-figure lekanis with lid of Asteas or in his manner. On the lid circular frieze of figures. On one half Eros and a young woman seated opposite, behind of Eros a swan. On the other half a sitting young semi-nude woman between a young satyr and a bearded silen. On the knob four palmettes in cruciform, around a band of waves. A second band of waves on the rim of the lid.
The cup is nearly completely covered with black glaze. Outside between the handles on each side a laurel-wreath with a white-yellow rosette in the middle. The knob of the lid is broken and reattached, few little splinters are missing, otherwise intact. Gorgeous vase with beautiful drawings of the figures! Zu Kantharos-Gruppe s.
Apulian red-figure plate of the Kantharos Group. On the upper side between a frieze of tongues, a white wreath and band of waves a tondo with the head of a young woman with sakkos. Four fragments at the rim are broken and reattached complete. Provenienz: Ex Sammlung K. Zur Stuttgart Gruppe s. Apulian red-figure plate, related to the Stuttgart Group.
Zum Stoke-on-Trent-Maler s. On the upper side between a frieze of tongues and band of waves a tondo with the head of a young woman with sakkos. Reassembled from three large fragments, little missing parts at the cracks and one larger at the foot. Campanian black-glazed bell-crater with beautifully profiled rim and foot.
Few fragments of the foot are broken and reattached, one little modern and retouched area, the black glaze is rubbed off at few spots at the rim, otherwise intact. Campanian black-glazed hydria. On the corpus plastic ribs, below the handles ribs in form of a pointed triangle, on the shoulder in added colour a garland, and on the side of the mouth egg-and-dart.
Intact, below the foot rest of sinter. Mit TL-Analyse von Kopie! Bemalung an wenigen Stellen etwas verrieben, sonst intakt. Large Apulian Gnathia skyphos. Between the handles on both sides an incised tendril with yellow-white and red ivy-leaves, between the leaves red and white korymbs. The colour is slightly rubbed off at few little spots, otherwise intact. Magna Graecia, 2. Chous mit Eierstab und Weinranke. Farbe an einigen Stellen abgeplatzt, sonst intakt.
Skyphos mit Wellenband und doppelter Weinranke. Ein Henkel gebrochen und wieder angesetzt, sonst intakt. Little collection of Greek Gnathia vases from the Magna Graecia. Colour slightly rubbed off at the rim, otherwise intact. Colour is flaked off at few spots, otherwise intact. One handle broken and reattached, otherwise intact. Epichysis mit Eierstab und doppelter Weinranke sowie zwei Kopfappliken. Henkel und Ausguss gebrochen und wieder angesetzt, Farbe verrieben. Oinochoe der Form 5A mit Rosette und doppelter Weinranke. Farbe teilweise abgeplatzt, sonst intakt.
Chous mit Weinranke. Handle and spout broken and reattached, colour rubbed off. Colour partially flaked off, otherwise intact. H 18,2 u. Schnabelkannen mit ovoidem Corpus und hohem Henkel, seitlich daran Frauen- bzw. Pair of Apulian epichyses of the Gnathia ware. On the corpus egg-and-dart and a double vine-tendril, on the shoulder a garland and again egg-and-dart, on the neck rays.
Laterally at the handle two plastically moulded heads of women respectively lions. One tiny splinter of a foot is missing, otherwise intact and in very good condition. H 19,6cm. Publiziert in: W. Hornbostel u. Ausstellung Hamburg S. Apulian epichysis of the Gnathia ware. On the corpus between egg-and-dart a redyellow garland, a band of crenels and a double vine-tendril.
Laterally at the handle two plastically moulded heads of lions. Published in ! Westabhangkeramik mit aufgelegter Farbe. Auf dem. Zwei Wandungsfragmente des Deckels gebrochen und wieder angesetzt. Attic pyxis with lid type B of the West Slope Ware. Reddish clay with dark brown slip, on the lid with added colour ears of corn in cruciform. Two fragments of the lid are broken and reattached. Mit der Beschreibung von Ernst Langlotz Kopie!
Small black-glaze pyxis with lid. Jahrhundert Essen: Emil Holmer Verlag, n. Dietrich Simon, vol. Munich: Verlag Franz Eher Nachfolger, , Ernst Rudolf Huber, vol. New York: A. Richard G. Walter F. David Benseler, Walter F. John M. Spalek and Joseph Strelka, vol. Werner Roeder and Herbert A. Strauss, Biographisches Handbuch der deutschsprachigen Emigration nach , 3 vols.
Munich, New York et al. Gedichte Heidelberg: Lambert Schneider, , Egon Schwarz Reminiscences of a UFO Egon Schwarz M two parts: my response to Professor Seeba of whose paper I have been shown only a small fraction prior to this session; and, invited to do so by Meike Werner, I shall try to give an account of how I deal with the anti-Semitism in my chosen field of learning. Professor Seeba, whom I have known for a long time and for whose work I have the highest respect, has sketched the role refugee scholars from Nazi Europe played in our field of learning. One could and should expand this focus to include many other disciplines, for example psychoanalysis, art history, empirical sociology, and many others.
It would not be difficult to argue that the atomic bomb that helped establish American hegemony in the world and ushered in a whole new phase in human history was the work of scientists driven out of Europe by the fascists. It is unthinkable what the world would be like had they done this for Germany as many would have without the insane racial phantasies of the Nazis. With regard to the narrower field of German, Hinrich Seeba is right to say that many of the refugees were uncomfortable with theory. Some of the more prominent ones had been successful or at least frustrated writers of poetry, drama, and fiction in Europe.
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As such, their guiding principles had been Bildlichkeit and Anschaulichkeit, the expression of ideas in the form of images and a rhetoric of persuasion. Thus, publications of Bernhard Blume, Oskar Seidlin, Heinz Politzer, and Erich Heller, to name only a few, were jargon-free masterpieces of elegance in addition to their indisputable scholarly merits.
Oskar Seidlin and Erich Heller had already made a start breaking down the barriers that separated the field of German from the general intellectual life of America. I have my own difficulties with abstract universals. While they are helpful in bringing some order into the chaos of the phenomenal world, they only seem correct in areas we know little about. Where one has a pretty good grasp of what is the case, generalizations seem to pale. Place of origin, social class, upbringing and education, age at the time of arrival in the United States are important individualizing factors.
I for example came from Latin America, and I am sure that the essayism prevailing there had a lasting influence on me. Those mature scholars who had earned university degrees in Europe had attitudes different from the younger ones who got their training mainly at American institutions, such as Walter Sokel, Guy Stern, Peter Heller, Harry Zohn, Dorrit Cohn and I, often from teachers who were refugees themselves.
Maybe it was out of modesty that Mr. Seeba did not include the likes of himself in his survey. The many young Germans who joined American German departments after the war had a great impact on the profession, forming an important link between the Hitler refugees and the present generation of students. Professor Seeba gave a splendid overview assigning an honorific place to the exiled scholars in the development of the discipline.
It is nevertheless possible to see this process through the prism of different categories. Let me try to mention a few of the forces that worked on German studies from without. The first of these is professionalization. During the early decades of the century and beyond in many departments the main credential of the teachers was their German birth. Tenure was granted on the basis of longevity or the whims of powerful heads of the department without much consultation.
I am not making value judgments. Students chose their languages by simple prejudices: Spanish had the reputation of the easiest to learn, good for business in Latin America; French was supposed to bestow culture on the learner; German was for the budding scientist. Tenure and intermittent prosperous times may have encouraged a kind of laziness.
Scaling the higher pinnacles of German literature was regarded as a luxury for a few prestige-hungry oddballs or gentleman scholars. The refugees played various roles in this scene. Some of them reinforced the amateurish character of the field by being amateurs themselves, lacking the proper training, similar to the Cuban lawyers who fled from Castro to become professors of Spanish in this country. But many, whatever their background, injected intellectualism and broad knowledge into their departments, elevating their levels to new heights, asking exciting questions, publishing in reputable journals, cultivating a fine style of writing, and showing a penchant for comparative literature.
Secondly, de-literarization. The expansion of the curricula into sociohistorical and cultural studies began early for many reasons. Apart from the fact that the refugees had historic experiences they needed to articulate, two of the most important causes were the youth movement and student rebellion of the sixties and seventies on the one hand and the concomitant reduction or complete abandonment of the language requirement on the other.
To lure students back, courses on Marx, the Frankfurt School, fascism and National Socialism, the German and Austrian exiles, on Jewish affairs and the Holocaust were offered in many places. It was the time of the area studies and the theorification of the field. In the first phase of these changes many refugees took an active part. The second theoretical wave which brought mainly French influences into the language departments, including feminist and gay approaches to life and letters, no longer engendered the same interest in the refugee scholars.
As a matter of fact, since this second phase became the dominant one, the relative non-participation of the refugee scholars contributed to the re-marginalization of some departments, not only in the public sphere, to which they were amply accustomed, but within their own universities.
Finally, Americanization. In this important transformation the exiles played an active role mainly by their disappearance. By this time many had retired, a number had died. Even the German and Austrian colleagues who had come after the war were growing old or had intellectual objections to the new trends. But in the meantime, thanks to the expansion of American universities in the fifties and sixties, large numbers of American scholars had been trained, some of course by the refugee scholars themselves and their postwar successors.
This new generation had now come of academic age and began entering the field. Today we are witnessing a development that many American scholars had long desired. In my opinion, an American Germanistik, generationally and methodologically different from its German counterpart, is in the making. As I said in the beginning, I was invited to this conference to report from personal experience how a Jewish scholar came to terms with the strong anti-Semitic strands within German literature which he had chosen as his field of learning.
As a preamble to my remarks I should like to say that at the time I came to the United States in I could have easily taken up and actually did begin a course of studies that would have led to a career in Romance Languages and Literatures. I had started my university education in Ecuador and was at least as fluent in Spanish as in German, and my French did not lag much behind. Had I done this I would have had to deal with antiSemitism in Spain and France since the ideological hatred of Jews is endemic in all Christian societies. But it was the professors in the various German departments I attended, especially Bernhard Blume and Oskar Seidlin, who took me under their wings, found employment for me and automatically assumed that I was preparing someday to join their ranks.
I acquiesced without much reflection not only because it was the way of least resistance but also for inner reasons: after a decade in Latin America I was ready to return to the language and literature of my early upbringing. I am pretty sure that a subconscious curiosity about the historical forces that had uprooted me also influenced my choice.
When I started my studies of German there was indeed reason to be concerned about anti-Semitism not only in my subject matter but also in the profession itself. German nationalism, anti-Semitism, and Nazi sympathies were not overtly articulated. The defeat of Germany in the Second World War had pretty much silenced such voices. But professors who had held such beliefs were still around, and it was not infrequent that one was confronted with these phenomena in the secondary literature.
Let me also remind you that anti-Semitism in the United States in the forties was still very strong and not at all the taboo that it is today. It was easy for our teachers to avoid the subject of anti-Semitism in the classroom because the prevailing theory of literature was a German variant of the New Criticism that dominated literary studies in the United States as a whole. Hermeneutical interpretation of texts that excluded all consideration of history was a rule that one could only disregard at the risk of seeming crude. Contemporary literature and the postwar debates going on in Germany at that time were not part of the curriculum.
Our minds were fully occupied, in addition to the tasks of teaching German as a language, with studying and having to pass examinations about everything from Gothic to Goethe and even a little beyond. Things became different once I had gotten my degree. Already in my dissertation on Georg Christoph Lichtenberg, a stalwart of the German Enlightenment, I included a chapter about his dislike of Jews.
My first job was at Harvard. The times when this institution had insisted on quotas for Jews were over, and some professors were Jews. In the German Department I was the only one and still encountered some anti-Semitism, albeit in mild form. Times were not conducive yet to a Gentile-Jewish dialogue. Things changed for me when I went to Hamburg in the late fifties and early sixties, first as a Guggenheim Fellow and then as a Visiting Professor.
While I was teaching there, the Senate of the city suggested that the faculty devote more energy to the study of literature of the German exiles. This was received with scorn. Why should one study such trash, was the general reaction. Egon Schwarz at the entrance to the subway, New York City, Disclaimer: Some images in the printed version of this book are not available for inclusion in the eBook.
Back in the United States Guy Stern, I, and others worked hard to introduce these critical subjects into the Modern Language Association and the American Association of Teachers of German as well as into the humanities curricula. I taught courses not only on the exiled writers but also on fascism, National Socialism, anti-Semitism and the so-called Jewish question. I also founded a German Studies Program at Washington University, which I had joined in , thus being among those who began to transform our field from purely one of literary studies into the cultural discipline it is today.
But by the end of the sixties these were no longer isolated attempts. The student rebellion and youth movement in the United States and many other countries was in full swing, asking questions about the German past. At that point the idealizing reception of the Jewish scholars in the realm of thinking about German history took place.
Sigmund Freud and psychoanalysis, long shunned and vilified by German scholars, were eagerly absorbed into German and Austrian intellectual life. The destinies of exiled Jewish authors of all fields became a study that occupied thousands. The Jewish character of Viennese culture was celebrated in books and seminars. Exile libraries were established, conferences held. Monumental editions of Jewish writers, for example Heine, prospered.
Holocaust studies in political science, sociology, and history were financed. This does not mean that being a Jew in German Studies had entirely ceased to be problematic. The unconstrained intercourse between Jews and Gentiles in Germany and Austria, if it had ever existed, was lost, perhaps forever. The phenomenon of philosemitism erected new barriers. I see a parallel in the debate about affirmative action.
By and large the situation was a far cry from what it had been at the beginning of my career. The modest attempts to direct attention to the Jewish question that I undertook in my youth dwindle before this passionate onslaught. It is a passion I cannot fully share. Perhaps one cannot expect a lot of lava from an extinct volcano. But there is more to it.
A long time has gone by since questions of national, ethnic, or religious identity have occupied my mind. I grew up in the grey period between the two wars and, while I kept faith with my faithless hometown of Vienna for a long while after I had to leave it, the rush and urge to survive in the harsh environment of the Andes wiped out much of the identification I had brought along into my emigration. All the more was I tempted to become an American after arriving in the United States. This illusion did not last long: McCarthyism, the Vietnam war, the proxy wars in Central America, racism, and more recently the treatment of the poor and the anti-immigrant wave — these and many other events and phenomena made it impossible and even undesirable for me to seek an identification with this society.
My thoroughly unreligious and anti-nationalistic orientation precluded any such adoption. I feel no inclination to privilege and much less to glorify any of the countries in which I have lived. Necessarily there arrives the moment when a person feels obsolescent in relation to the society that surrounds him or her.
Panta rhei. Jewish scholars such as Michael Brenner and Shulamit Volkov try to define Jewish identity no longer only by the experiences of the Holocaust, but in a larger, more positive context in the past. Against Goldhagen they show that there was a GermanJewish symbiosis in Germany prior to , before Hitler. Actually both refugees wanted to rescue to some extent the German Geistesgeschichte that had shaped their identities as German scholars.
But they followed different paths. He seems to have used the theory of cultural poetics in his time. Alewyn had greater difficulty in entering the German departments of the United States, which were bastions of German national ideology, including Jewish exiles at that time, a fact to which Egon Schwarz has just testified. Professor Seeba in his presentation stressed the importance of Austria as the native country of perhaps the majority of the GermanJewish scholars who emigrated to the German departments of the United States.
Now she is looking for the traces of German-Jewish symbiosis too, approaching the point of view of Brenner and Volkov. It seems to me he had his roots there, as a German and as a Jew. So what we have are letters by Richard Alewyn, for example when he first found out that he was probably going to have to go to America. These letters are very interesting because they all ended up in Wisconsin since Alexander Hohlfeld, who was at the time the department head, was also the head of the American Association of Teachers of German for a very long time and hence was well known to Germanists 3 also outside of the United States.
And that is the only reason they ended up in Wisconsin. Do you know anything about this person, is he Jewish maybe? So, unfortunately, as I said, not all these universities kept good records. It is just by accident some of these records are still there. This addresses something that Hinrich Seeba said, namely that we should go into these records and see how on a departmental level this was handled.
But unfortunately a lot of these things were destroyed at Madison. And you can see that someone went in there later and x-ed out information. Which would make what Hinrich Seeba has called for a little difficult. It is really hard to disagree with Hinrich Seeba in general — but someone has to do the dirty work, Hinrich — so I will disagree now. I see that the gist of your presentation, of your assessment comes retrospectively. You see the roots in the contribution of Jewish immigrants in the thirties and forties. I grant you, you have painted a very good picture of the general contribution back to Cassirer, but I would say the following: I have a somewhat different perspective on this.
I also came thirty years ago. I discovered this when I heard you speak. It was thirty years ago that Harvard hired me as a visiting lecturer, in It was due to Adolf Klarmann — and Henry Remak b. It was still sort of on the margins of Germanistics. However, what I learned from the older generation was an enormous love for literature. It was a love of literature. But it was expressed very well, as you have said, in many of the essays, the contributions of American or German-Jewish American Germanists.
This love of literature is something that I think revitalized the discipline and I think the expansion into comparative literature — to some extent even institutionally with Erich Auerbach — and Leo Spitzer — — that is a contribution that is special. I see it somewhat differently. I wrote my dissertation on the Austrian novel, and I should say fortunately: it was a wonderful entrance ticket with American colleagues. Austria seems to have been in the s, maybe even a little earlier, Austria seems to have been an area where academics in the United States could deal with German affairs without dealing with the Germans.
Because I wanted this area of literature without the attachments of German politics, especially Nazi politics. I think that Politzer and Klarmann and many others cherished this and integrated it. It was not until the s, the late sixties, Egon Schwarz brought it out in pointing to this generation that came in the s, more or less younger Germanists from Germany who at that time — when the American university opened up toward a lot of social unrest, but also social science, and in the sixties and seventies — that this was more the source for the interdisciplinarity that you are pointing out.
Berkeley plays an important role. I mean to certain things that came from Berkeley at the time. What I bring to you is a differentiation of what you bring out. That is maybe a good way to now respond. That they were twice removed from German affairs and therefore could develop a critical viewpoint on Germany, which people coming directly from Germany may not have as strongly represented.
So I would see the Austrian perspective, especially after the war when Austrians were very proud of not being German and insisted a little bit too much in Austria itself that they had become the first victims of Germany, but I would see that as far as Jewish critics are concerned as an asset and not as a liability, as an asset for developing more socially concerned critical viewpoints on developments in postwar Germany.
And that is something which I tried to emphasize very much, that the autobiographical approach which Egon Schwarz emphasized in his own memoirs is a very interesting and very important development that Jewish critics taught us. So, I would say it is very important, as Egon Schwarz pointed out in his response, to emphasize the biographical approach, to look at the biographies of Jewish critics.
I think much more needs to be done there. Alewyn is an interesting case in point. But it would be interesting to look at such details, biographical details, but I would want to go beyond the biographies of individual cases and look into the effect of Jewish Germanists on the perspectives, on the goals, and the methods used in our field.
And I think there the impact, even though it may not be as strong in institutional terms, may be much larger, and the autobiographical aspect leading to the concept of positionality is only one example. That I think is something that should be not only valued but also which could be and should be emulated. The other aspect, also something that Regina Weber pointed out in her article, is to see not only the impact of Jewish critics on the development of the field here in America, but also the impact the returnees had on the development of German Germanistik.
Alewyn would be just one case in point. That he would start a summer school in German Studies with this English title I think is most interesting for perspectives which had not been common, which had not been used in Germany. That is certainly a reflection on something which he had learned here in America, and I think it is something which goes beyond literature, namely to see literature really in a cultural context. It had an effect on both the American discipline of German Studies or Germanistik as well as on Germany, and it would be interesting to look at that.
Bernhard Blume talks about his interaction, or lack of it, with the consul general in San Francisco while he was teaching at Mills. Another aspect that also was brought out by Bernhard Blume: the interaction between such Jewish critics with students who came from Nazi Germany as exchange students.
Bernhard Blume talks about one particular student, a very attractive woman student with whom he was very taken, who then later turned out to report on him when she returned to Germany, even though she had been a very friendly and very open and very supportive student in his class. That would be interesting too, because apparently there was an exchange program going on with students coming from Nazi Germany studying at American universities, studying with the Jewish exiles who would confront them with very different views on Germany. I think this is another area that I would like to look into more systematically — or which I would like to see looked into more systematically than has been done so far, even though the material may be somewhat limited.
I learned from Walter Schmitz that even looking at the papers of Heinz Politzer in Dresden shows a lot about the process of tenure promotions and personnel actions in Berkeley, which would be very interesting to see — especially if you happen to be one of those looked at. Wenn wir also diese Beispiele als besonders markante Kontributionen der Refugees in Amerika zur Entwicklung der Germanistik auffassen, glaube ich, da kann ich nicht mit.
Or the third generation. But it is a different kind of cultural studies and a different kind of appreciation of culture than our so-to-speak grandfathers had taught. And I think that this American-Jewish Germanistik has also contributed in a particular way, which marks it, as I said, as this transition. In addition, Hinrich has pointed out the notion of positionality.
This can be seen as both positive and negative. The question is: How explicit should that reflection be about being Jewish? The Goldhagen debate for example has brought this up — not so much in Germanistik but at least in history and in other fields. In other words I really think that perhaps there should be more emphasis on the symbiosis here. The other point I want to make is that the word New Criticism was mentioned once, I believe in passing, by Egon Schwarz but I think it should be mentioned more often and particularly by way of emphasizing the large range of possibilities that was enacted by the refugee generation.
Many of them were New Critics in practice and not in theory, and many of them worked — Professor Wellek for example, who was one of the leaders of this, and certainly Alewyn and Blume — worked very much in the direction of close explication of individual texts. Their work tended to be quite apolitical and also by implication non-intercultural. So these are the two things that I felt need to be emphasized more strongly than they were perhaps emphasized by anyone on the board to this point. Should we have spoken up earlier, or not at all?
People were silent about it for quite a while. As far as I am concerned, I came to this country after experiencing the impossibility of doing what I wanted to do. I was a 6 long-time student of Adolf Klarmann. I entered the University of Pennsylvania in He was a remarkable man; I was his student for many, many years. He was shabbily treated in that department, mainly because he was both Jewish and Austrian, which meant that he had two strikes against him in a heavily ethnocentrically German-oriented department.
He was engaged for much of his career in an epic, longrunning feud with an old-time German pedagogue, who was very good in his way, but they were total opposites. The the old-time German professor — with a dueling scar across his face he really looked the part — was a very good classroom teacher who categorized and systematized and organized everything heavily almost in a 7 Procrustean manner, but was very well prepared of course.
His mentality was totally different, was not systematic; he was not theoretical.
I was a fairly shy, bashful, retiring young kid. I had to find my way back in his class. He had a picture of Schiller up on his wall.
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But Dr. Klarmann — he was fabulous in drama, on figures like Grillparzer and Schnitzler, but also on Kleist and Hauptmann. He really had read afresh these works and he came up with absolutely fresh and humanistic, not academic interpretations, which were memorable. He had rethought them based on his rich human experience. I wrote my dissertation with him. But Adolf Klarmann left you to figure this out for yourself. In the end they made peace with each other.
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The older man retired and went back to Germany — Dr. He wrote a conciliatory letter to his younger colleague from Germany from his retirement, so that eventually this hostility was relieved. But what I was going to say also, which gets really to the heart of the topic of this conference, the main difference between them was — there were many of them — that Klarmann had a sense of humor, a sense of irony.
So I wanted to pay tribute to Dr. Klarmann as he was my mentor for many years too. I stayed in touch with him after I finished my dissertation, and became his friend. Adolf D. One of the points that struck me even today is that there is a difference in the writings and the attitudes of the refugee scholars here during the thirties and during the war; where they still largely abstained from the present, and from any sort of problems that would go beyond the text. I have looked for instance at what they were writing about, and it was Goethe.
The only twentieth-century writer that began to show up was Thomas Mann. He was the second Goethe. With the generation of the refugees who had served in the American army who came back and who started their studies after the war. I think there is a marked difference of more self-confidence to face the past and the tradition in a different way. Of course for me the reason to look at it was that Germanistik, except for Thomas Mann, never looked at the exiled writers who lived in America during the time that they were here.
Except for one little series that Harold von Hofe 8 wrote, nobody ever bothered to contact them — Klarmann was another exception, naturally — let alone write about them while they were here and while they could be contacted and while they could be interviewed. This came much later. And I think this sort of abstention from the present is a remarkable fact, as is the coming together of the exiles and the successor generation from Germany, ours, in starting to confront the past and the present and wanting to deal with it.
They were radically alienated by the student movement in the s, and the feeling was definitely mutual. I think this is something that should also be addressed in the context. I think it needs to be pointed out that the role he assigned to Thomas Mann in the thirties was actually occupied by Gerhart Hauptmann, not by Thomas Mann. That came much later. It also needs to be pointed out that Thomas Mann was invited by almost every college and university in this country except my own, alas! It was always the Comparative Literature department, or the English department or some other department, rarely the German department.
For good reasons, if you go into the personnel constellations in each of those departments. One more quick comment to what Peter Demetz said earlier. There are many other cases where it is unhelpful. All these people were displaced writers. This is very, very important. They were creative writers. And because they were creative writers, they were readers of literature, but in a special way. Not like the German scholars of the older school who read literature as scientists, but they read literature identifying with it and so they became excellent teachers, because teachers have to be hams.
And the ham is an actor. And as an actor interprets literature, he is the first critic: the actor, the conductor in music and so on. So they were artist teachers and artist scholars. I think this did not come out sufficiently. And I think that differentiates them both from their predecessors, the Germanisten of the old school, but also from their successors, the sociology-minded, textual-minded, very serious scholars. They were not as serious. They were very multi-faceted. And one more thing, something Hans Vaget brought up, about Thomas Mann being taught.
That was a breath of fresh air. That was just wonderful. Because before that of course Thomas Mann was never mentioned by the other teachers. There are several things that were mentioned today that remind me of him. First of all what Professor Sokel just referred to, his creative writing. But certainly what we all know him for, the brilliance of his writing and his essays might also be just a transmutation of his creative skills. I am going through old notes that I took on his seminar on young Goethe, and there were no references made to the politics of those times, let alone to the politics of his time.
When in private conversation one attempted to hear details, let us say of his exile in Switzerland, which is something that I think I know something about myself, my mother having been a refugee in Switzerland — those were conversations that he ducked. I think German literature also stopped for him with Thomas Mann. I do not say that critically, because he had that passion, that love of literature, which he transmitted to us, and he is responsible for having made us discover the love of words like no one else I could think of.
He did not deny it — it was clear who he was — but I do not think that in significant ways this affected his manner of teaching. It is actually directed to Professor Seeba and it picks up on what Professor Cohn and the last speaker also mentioned. It seems to me that there is a way in which they do point to something privileged and special about Bildlichkeit, about literature. I have a hard time seeing them as harbingers or precursors of a kind of wider social perspective, and I was just wondering if you might want to elaborate a little bit on that tension. And even Politzer in his Grillparzer study would always — as far as I read his book and as I know it from his talks, from his classes, and from many conversations — would always see the author not only as the anonymous [sic] also of a text, but as a living person in a socialhistorical-cultural context.
But he would not engage political interpretation, you are correct there, and I think all those who have expressed this are very correct in saying that this generation cannot be seen, possibly with the exception of Egon Schwarz, as politically leftleaning, as supporters of causes which were closer to our hearts in the late sixties. But what I was trying to say was that this generation anticipated many of the positions which have become theoretical positions now. Which have become conceptualized as theoretical positions, but which were never formulated as theoretical positions.
Jeff Peck pointed out that positionality is something that is now possibly differently interpreted than it was by these Jewish critics at the time, but nevertheless I would say that we could use the term positionality for understanding the extent to which they have brought in personal experience, at least implicitly, into their dealings with literature. And that is something I would miss even now when we have more theoretical discussions of positionality, that in dealing with German literature and German culture, Austrian literature, Austrian culture, today we miss the involvement of personalities who have been very much formed and been informed by their experience and it was certainly our understanding and our knowledge of the extent to which they were really framed, or by which they were guided, to the extent to which they were guided by this experience of the critical situation, of a critical life, of a crisis in life and I think that helped at least me personally very much to find a totally new approach to literature, not as a merely objective field, as I had learned to study in literary scholarship, Literaturwissenschaft, as I was trained in Germany.
Regina Weber. I am German, and I am at the moment a student at Hebrew College. The students admired him and we thought his lectures were great, and I personally had to make a few attempts for getting grants. Can you bring some of his poetry? It might be an interesting question: the influence of a professor like Richard Alewyn coming back to Germany and his influence on second generation Germans again.
There are two things, very briefly. I do think we have a disagreement here in general, not just between Herrn Seeba and myself, but I think that the voices here have voiced some kind of questioning, friendly questioning, very friendly questioning of this excellent talk: namely, a political disagreement.
I know that personally from conversations with them, from my contacts with them, and from their works. They were really the old tradition of Austrian patriotism, not Seidlin of course, but Heller and Politzer; they were Kakanian patriots. So I would say that we have to distinguish between the generation of , and the generation of Egon Schwarz of , and Guy Stern who also belongs to this generation.
They were of course left leaning, progressive, and very different and sociologically oriented, and it was an anathema for Heinz Politzer, but particularly for Erich Heller and Oskar Seidlin to bring in sociological considerations. I remember how Oskar Seidlin responded to an article of mine, 9 which I had written for his Festschrift. I think that it is clear that the Jewish Germanists came to this country with their own likes and dislikes, their literary taste. Heinz Politzer by the way was interested in a different kind of Kakania.
He taught a course at Cornell in and which began with Ein Bruderzwist in Habsburg and ended with Die letzten Tage der Menschheit, so with another kind of Kakania. But I think that many Germanists who came to this country from Germany considered certain German-Jewish writers beyond the pale, and I think this has influenced the writing of literary history up until this day. David P.
Benseler, Walter F. Strauss et al. Munich: K. Saur, , — University of Pennsylvania, He spent most of his career at the University of Pennsylvania and was best known for his work on Franz Werfel. Klarmann, ed. Weimar Munich: Delp, He took his degree in German from Strassburg in then emigrated to the United States in the same year. As of he was at the University of Pennsylvania until his retirement in He was also known as a Werfel scholar. Geburtstage am 7. Januar ] Heidelberg: Winter, Die Nationalsozialisten stehen vor ihren Augen und wie sie viele Deutsche erst zu Juden gemacht haben.
Sie unterscheidet zwischen den Diskursen und den Menschen. Ich spreche hier von kulturellen Werten und der Kultur im allgemeinen. In den Epochen, von denen ich hier spreche, steht einem philologischen Ansatz im engeren Sinn den Editionen, biographischen Detailstudien etc. Daraus entwickelte sich dann auch die Gei4 stesgeschichte zwischen und Die Kultur sieht Geiger auch in der Wissenschaft am Werk und kann daher keine rechte Dialektik von Kulturwerten und Wissenschaft entwickeln.
Zumindest hinsichtlich seines Programms. Mit Goethe tat er sich schwer. Du hast sie in dieser Form nur kennen, we11 nigstens als berechtigt ehren gelernt. Juden unterschieden sich nicht von den Deutschen, sondern von den Christen. Das philologische Dreieck Trennen! Denn die Werte regeln nicht automatisch auch die Forschung. Doch im Seminar sieht es gern anders aus, wilder. Die Institution schafft einen Innenraum, den bestimmte Wissenschaften nutzen. Spezialisierung gibt es nur an der Peripherie, die sich auf die Hierarchie beziehen oder geographisch gemeint sein kann.
Ist Spezialisierung der Quell von institutionellem Erfolg? Gustav Roethe schrieb an Wolfgang von Oettingen am 7. Geigers Verhaltensmaxime lautet, stets auf die spezifische Situation und auf die einzelne Sache bezogen zu antworten. Sie entspringt dem diszipliniert-defensiven Habitus des Trennens, der einem auch in der Rezension von Hehns antisemitischem Buch begegnet.
Als Jude bin ich 38 Partei, als Literarhistoriker bin ich parteilos. Doch der Gegenstand selbst leistet dem nicht Folge. Die Historia von D. Doch Goethe hatte — wie wir wissen — anderes im Sinn als Lessing. Diese Freiheit verdankt er der spekulativen Konstruktion seiner Naturphilosophie. Denn alles zu wissen verhindert die Form. Die Entscheidung erzeugt die unterscheidbaren Gestalten. Das hat Geiger nicht wahr haben wollen und liebt in Goethe seinen Lessing. Denn die Kultur ist zu schwach, um sich gegen ihren eigenen Antisemitismus zu wehren. Gedanken sind universal, doch wenn aus ihnen literarische Werke geschaffen werden, kehrt das Leben mit seinen Vorurteilen wieder ein.
Sie sind zu schwach, sich dagegen zu wehren. Heteronome kulturelle Werte, die in die Texte aufgenommen werden, behalten viel von ihrem alten Sinn. Geigers Haltung in den Berliner Vorlesungen ist ebenso verzweifelt wie trotzig. Klaus L. Jahrhundert, hrsg. Mit einem Bildnis Berlin: Reimer, , — Ludwig Geigers Erinnerung an die zweite Rabbinerversammlung in Frankfurt am Gottes Wille. Geiger, Die Deutsche Literatur und die Juden, Enterprises, , 55— Literaturwissenschaft und Geistesgeschichte bis Kritische Gesamtausgabe, 3.
Ludwig Geiger hat mich besucht, u. Meyer: Emanzipation und Akkulturation —, Bd. Winfried Menninghaus und Klaus R. Scherpe Stuttgart, Weimar: Metzler, , — Doch das Leben Goethes ist ebenso exoterisch wie eine kulturgeschichtliche Idee. Mai , in Briefe der Jahre —, Bd. Literatur- und Kulturhistoriker. Diese schlug sich eindeutig auch in ihren wissenschaftlichen Interessen, in ihrem literarischen Kanon nieder.
Das deutsche Volk verliert den zweideutigen Titel der Dichter und Denker. Jahrhunderts bis hin zur Geschichte der Juden in Berlin Es scheint mehr bestimmt stolpernd zu ma13 chen, als begangen zu werden. Briefe von und an Michael Bernays Berlin: B. Ehlermann, , —80, hier Mai , Peter Szondi: Briefe, hrsg.
Februar , Peter Szondi: Briefe, —3. Jost Schillemeit, Bd. Fischer Verlag, , Sein Vorschlag dazu ist eine kritische Fachgeschichte, die die vom Philologen getroffene Wahl des Gegenstandes als Wertung versteht. Sie werden demontiert und neu formuliert, und erst dann folgen Antworten und Stellungnahmen. Auch hier haben die meisten die ihnen vorgelegten Fragen zuerst einmal kritisiert und umformuliert, bevor sie sie beantworteten. Bei Goethe ist das nicht so. Anders als Geiger wollte er ihn aber nicht interpretieren, sondern in der Edition seiner Schriften selbst sprechen lassen. Er scheint ihn regelrecht zu vermeiden.
Noch ein Wort zur Rolle der Editionsphilologie. Berend hatte unmittelbar nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg drei Versuche unternommen, sich zu habilitieren, und ist dreimal abgewiesen worden. Berend hatte bereits in den Jahren nach den Plan einer historischen Gesamtausgabe entworfen und sich damit an Roethe gewandt, der vermitteln sollte. Gegen diesen bayerischen Nationalismus trat Roethe an.
Eine letzte Bemerkung zur Rolle des bayerischen Partikularismus. Das war die Literatur von Frauen. Alle anderen wurden bis ins zwanzigste Jahrhundert meistens nur von Doktorandinnen bearbeitet.
Ich spreche nicht als Jude, sondern als Literaturhistoriker. Als Jude bin ich 10 Partei, als Literaturhistoriker bin ich parteilos. Talking about identity politics it became again clear through this talk, how important positionality is. Of course it is a justified reaction to a universalism that was not universal. We have to get back to the nineteenth century in many ways and to the Enlightenment and to a real public sphere, where identity politics will no longer be necessary. I am the one who is German. They are undeutsch. Over the years he slowly had to acknowledge his marginality in this culture.
Geiger was for a time associated with this project. Max Koch was also Jewish, but a very ardent nation12 alist. He underwent some of the same tensions that have been discussed here. The battle between nationalism and cosmopolitanism was fought out to some extent in turn-of-the-century Germany over the field of Comparative Literature, which never really got very far in spite of these early efforts of Max Koch, which were somewhat misguided.
But there were other forces also at work. There were Jewish comparatists in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Incidentally the allusion to Peter Szondi is I think quite apt here too, because Szondi thought of himself essentially not as a Germanist, but as a comparatist and did very important work in the study of Comparative Literature. But in Germany the field had hard going in a large part, because of the pressures of cultural nationalism when someone had the temerity to ask for a chair in Comparative Literature at the turn of the century.
Well, we need more chairs for Germanistik, how could we afford such a luxury? And this is the story, it seems to me in large part, until shortly after the Second World War when the situation had radically changed. But there was obviously an opportunity missed here. I think the fact that Jewish scholars were drawn toward comparative study — and this has been the case in the United States since the Second World War also to some extent — I think that the awareness of the incentive of a cosmopolitan approach to literature was certainly not limited to Jewish scholars but seized on by them.
It may be that their Jewishness rendered them somewhat more disposed to do so. Erzberger, Friedrich Naumann, Prof. Ludwig Geiger, Hermann Bahr, Prof. Dezember Deutsches Literaturarchiv Marbach. Seine Briefe und Dichtungen von —, 3 Theile, hrsg. Hirzel, Berlin: Maurersche Buchhandlung, und , Stuttgart: Cotta, und Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Ehlermann, , —, hier Breslau was one of the few German universities in which it was possible for a Jew to hold this post.
Victor Leduc Paris: , 69— Soweit wir wissen, waren die Frauen nicht miteinander bekannt. Sie bewegten sich in unvereinbaren politischen und theoretischen Welten und kannten die Arbeiten der anderen wahrscheinlich nicht. In ihre Leben griff die Geschichte mit einer Gewalt ein, der sich keine entziehen konnte.
Es wird im folgenden also um Texte gehen, die nicht im Kontext der Wissenschaft als Beruf, sondern dem eines kritischen Denken als Berufung entstanden sind. November an Carl Friedrich von Reinhard. Was aber nehmen die Autorinnen mit aus Deutschland und was zieht in den Jahren nach der Flucht ihre Aufmerksamkeit auf sich? Eine Zeitgrenze. Ebenso wie Bertha Badt-Strauss sah sie nun einen wesentlichen Teil ihrer Arbeit darin, deutschsprachige Schriftsteller an die Sprache ihres neuen Landes zu vermitteln. Beide begannen sehr schnell, auf Englisch zu publizieren.
Mitgeschleppt werden all die unsichtbaren Lasten, die man nicht loswird. Und gleichzeitig liegt darin eine Chance. Er versteht sie nur als Interpretin seiner eigenen Arbeit, nicht als Theoretikerin eigenen Rechts. Ich bin begeistert. Haben Sie herzlichen Dank. Anders Bertha Badt-Strauss. Seit vielen Jahren litt sie an Multipler Sklerose und 28 konnte sich eine solche Arbeit sicher nicht mehr zutrauen. Ein kurzer Aufsatz im Aufbau ist es, der den Kontext ihrer sonstigen Publikationen umso nachhaltiger sprengt. Und der Heilige, 29 gelobt sei ER, befreite uns aus ihrer Hand.
Aber daneben stellt sich doch sofort die Frage: Hatten denn nicht wir, die deutschen Juden, an diesem Geist, diesem Wesen teil? Haben wir nicht in jenem Lande mitgelebt, seine Schicksale mitgetragen, seine Gedanken mitgedacht? Sprechen wir nicht seine Sprache? Haben wir nicht alles, was wir wissen und selber sind, in deutscher Sprache empfangen?
Nannten wir uns nicht und waren wir nicht Deutsche? Wir mussten uns selbst zerreissen, um nicht mehr Deutsche zu sein, und wir haben 31 es getan. Hannah Arendt hat also in der Adressierung ihres Buches an ihre verlorene Heimat einen anderen Akzent gesetzt als in dem Buch, das ihren Namen als Autorin in der neuen Welt etablierte. Doch wer liebt wen? Sie verbrannte ihre Briefe an Goethe am Ende ihres Lebens, und daher ist sie so stumm wie die Frau im kulturtheoretischen Modell Europas, das Mar36 garete Susman in den 20er Jahren entworfen hatte.
Susman arbeitet mit verschobenen Darstellungsformen oder besser gesagt: die Darstellung arbeitet mit dem Muster der Verschiebung. Wechsel der Schreibweisen nach Die Wege der drei Autorinnen in der Emigration gehen weit auseinander, wenn wir die Schreibweise ihrer Texte betrachten. Anders Margarete Susmans Schreibkonzept. Jahrhunderts suspendierte, versuchte Margarete Susman mit ihrem Schreiben einen Halt zu finden.