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The required weekly chapel is ecumenical. There was a big group that would go off to a special exercise class nearby. Acceptance rate Five applications for each acceptance after legacies are taken into account. A picnic compared with Episcopal. Boldface parents Donald and Ivana Trump. The program Traditional, low-key, and nonsectarian. Acceptance rate The first area school to institute an application lottery. Odds are three to one against even getting an application.

The rooftop play area has climbing equipment and an assortment of musical toys. The program Hip, by East Side standards.

Inside the Sandbox

Just how real is that lottery? Feeder to … The classic prep and single-sex schools. The vibe Calmer and more down-to-earth than Episcopal. Acceptance rate Four hundred applications for 70 slots but the siblings policy cuts that to about 35 slots for new families. Amenities Outdoor roof area, fully stocked basement gym.

The program Developmental — children learn at their own pace.

Inside the Sandbox

A lot of bankers and lawyers. But not the heavy-duty social people who have three nannies and never spend much time with their kids. Sea change Last year, Newell replaced legendary headmaster Mitten Wainwright. And she got a lot of kids into good schools this year. In the works: a retractable cover for the rooftop playground. Every song they sing, every outing they have. Barron has spotted a few Republican parents. Acceptance rate applicants for about twelve spots.

At least 60 percent of the seats must be filled by children from families at or below 75 percent of the state median income. In , CSRP programs served over 12, children. Researchers found overall positive outcomes in reading and math scores for children who attended CSRP, but the magnitude and significance of those effects is inconsistent across different racial, ethnic, and economic subgroups.

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As in other areas of the country, early care and education costs in Connecticut impose a major financial burden on working families. Just over a year ago, the Morton Grove IL Public Library, located in a Chicago suburb, began offering special storytime sessions to help young children deal with emotions such as fear and anger. The library also provides storytimes related to potty training.

Amy Goodchild, a youth services associate who has a background in school counseling, came up with the ideas. Let's begin by talking about the elephant in the room—phonics instruction has a bad reputation for being boring, dull I could go on. But it doesn't have to be! Many programs include sensory integration, songs, poems, and other engaging resources. This video, showing students segmenting and blending words orally and with their bodies, is one of many examples. And just like with any other type of instruction, you can always infuse your own style and flavor.

The research is overwhelming: Students require systematic instruction to crack the alphabetic code. If they aren't reading fluently by 2nd grade, students have a tough road ahead, particularly when considering the complex text demands of new, more rigorous college- and career-ready standards like the Common Core State Standards. And still onward we proceed! Which ones? Are you worried that your elementary school-age child is going to lose sight of her sight words over the summer?

The summer is a time to play, to enjoy nature and connect with others. In rural areas, it sometimes has less to do with circulation or program participation and more with meeting a range of needs for a community of 2, or fewer people. John WA Library. That can be particularly true for rural libraries.

Literary sandbox

Every teacher has them. The kids who sit quietly in the back of class, who don't raise their hand if called upon. The ones who shudder at the idea of group work: The introverts. Those kids can have a tough time in a society where being called "outgoing" is usually a compliment, where class participation counts towards your grade, and where schools are pushed to teach students so-called "21st century skills" such as collaboration, said Ashley Overton, an assistant professor at Trine University in Angola, Ind.

In the classroom, it's important for teachers to remember that introverts like to "work slowly and deliberately," Overton said. Teachers usually give students about three seconds to respond to a question. That's just not going to be enough time for most introverts, she said, who are more likely to listen than to talk, and like to think carefully before they speak up.

Technology can allow students to participate in a way that gives them time to think and collect their thoughts, said Megan Tolin, a former high school science teacher who is now the director of technology, innovation, and pedagogy at Indiana University School of Education, and presented with Overton at ISTE. But this bus feeds eager young minds on stories, with no risk of an ice-cream headache. Students may relish summer break, but learning loss is a dreaded consequence of the recess.

The books reviewed this week include eye-catching illustrated anthologies of poems, written in various poetic forms, that tell stories and convey information on a variety of topics. There is also a multi-voiced historical novel in verse that will engage and ignite the interest of older readers. Reading aloud the poems in these collections will encourage an appreciation of the beauty and power of poetry.

The family that plays video games together stays together.


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When parents become digital mentors, children can learn empathy and resilience and prepare for careers. Whenever possible, share screens with your kids. With the littlest kids, treat screens like a picture book. As they get older, bond over movie nights and video game time, and talk with them about what they're playing and watching solo. Prompt them to reflect on the positive lessons and the negative messages they're getting — a process called "active mediation," which helps you connect with your kids and helps them become more media savvy.

Online learning also gives kids something unique: individual attention. You, a babysitter, a grandparent, or even an older sibling act as virtual camp counselors, leading — and even learning alongside — your kids. Expect to be more involved if you go for the free, choose-your-own-adventure camps. But fee-based camps call for some adult participation, too. Check out these offerings. Arkansas school librarians Kim Moss and Carol Halbmaier have spent years trying to solve the issue of summer book access among some of their students. Over the years, the women have discussed allowing kids to check out books over break or opening up the school library one day a week.

Their dream: turning an old ice cream truck into a summer bookmobile. The summer bookmobile idea, however, was no joke. Throughout their shared history—teaching kindergarten together 20 years ago, as librarians in the district at separate schools for years, and now for the last two years, sharing a library in the same building that houses an elementary and middle school in Bentonville, AR—Moss and Halbmaier held onto this same goal.

Then during an unrelated meeting in spring , middle school social studies instructional specialist Sarah DeWitt mentioned that old school buses are put out of service each year and perhaps one could be turned into a bookmobile. These days, schools have to do more than just teach kids to use technology—they have to make sure parents understand what's going on in their students digital lives, too. That's especially true, she said, for districts with 1-to-1 initiatives. One way to make that happen: Family Technology Night. That could be its own standalone thing, or a session at another event, like back-to-school night, she said.

Oates suggested district leaders kick off conversations with parents by asking questions about their child's technology use, their anxieties, and more. The fetus continues to gain weight and grow in length until approximately 40 weeks. By then, the fetus has very little room to move around and birth becomes imminent. The progression through the stages is shown in [link]. During each prenatal stage, genetic and environmental factors can affect development. The developing fetus is completely dependent on the mother for life.

It is important that the mother takes good care of herself and receives prenatal care , which is medical care during pregnancy that monitors the health of both the mother and the fetus [link]. According to the National Institutes of Health [NIH], , routine prenatal care is important because it can reduce the risk of complications to the mother and fetus during pregnancy.

In fact, women who are trying to become pregnant or who may become pregnant should discuss pregnancy planning with their doctor. They may be advised, for example, to take a vitamin containing folic acid, which helps prevent certain birth defects, or to monitor aspects of their diet or exercise routines. A pregnant woman receives an ultrasound as part of her prenatal care. The placenta provides nourishment and oxygen to the fetus. A teratogen is any environmental agent—biological, chemical, or physical—that causes damage to the developing embryo or fetus.

There are different types of teratogens.

Health hazards lurking in the sandbox - CBS News

Alcohol and most drugs cross the placenta and affect the fetus. Alcohol is not safe to drink in any amount during pregnancy. Excessive maternal drinking while pregnant can cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorders with life-long consequences for the child ranging in severity from minor to major [link]. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders FASD are a collection of birth defects associated with heavy consumption of alcohol during pregnancy. Physically, children with FASD may have a small head size and abnormal facial features. Cognitively, these children may have poor judgment, poor impulse control, higher rates of ADHD, learning issues, and lower IQ scores.

These developmental problems and delays persist into adulthood Streissguth et al. Smoking is also considered a teratogen because nicotine travels through the placenta to the fetus. When the mother smokes, the developing baby experiences a reduction in blood oxygen levels. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , smoking while pregnant can result in premature birth, low-birth-weight infants, stillbirth, and sudden infant death syndrome SIDS.

Heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, almost all prescription medicines, and most over-the counter medications are also considered teratogens.

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Babies born with a heroin addiction need heroin just like an adult addict. The child will need to be gradually weaned from the heroin under medical supervision; otherwise, the child could have seizures and die. Other teratogens include radiation, viruses such as HIV and herpes, and rubella German measles.

Women in the United States are much less likely to be afflicted with rubella because most women received childhood immunizations or vaccinations that protect the body from disease. Each organ of the fetus develops during a specific period in the pregnancy, called the critical or sensitive period [link]. For example, research with primate models of FASD has demonstrated that the time during which a developing fetus is exposed to alcohol can dramatically affect the appearance of facial characteristics associated with fetal alcohol syndrome.

As you now know, women who use drugs or alcohol during pregnancy can cause serious lifelong harm to their child. This policy was tried in Charleston, South Carolina, as recently as 20 years ago. The Interagency Policy applied to patients attending the obstetrics clinic at MUSC, which primarily serves patients who are indigent or on Medicaid. It did not apply to private obstetrical patients. The policy required patient education about the harmful effects of substance abuse during pregnancy. This policy seemed to deter women from seeking prenatal care, deterred them from seeking other social services, and was applied solely to low-income women, resulting in lawsuits.

The program was canceled after 5 years, during which 42 women were arrested. A federal agency later determined that the program involved human experimentation without the approval and oversight of an institutional review board IRB. What were the flaws in the program and how would you correct them? What are the ethical implications of charging pregnant women with child abuse?

The average newborn weighs approximately 7. Although small, a newborn is not completely helpless because his reflexes and sensory capacities help him interact with the environment from the moment of birth. All healthy babies are born with newborn reflexes : inborn automatic responses to particular forms of stimulation. Reflexes help the newborn survive until it is capable of more complex behaviors—these reflexes are crucial to survival. They are present in babies whose brains are developing normally and usually disappear around 4—5 months old.

The sucking reflex is the automatic, unlearned, sucking motions that infants do with their mouths. Several other interesting newborn reflexes can be observed. The baby spreads her arms, pulls them back in, and then usually cries. How do you think these reflexes promote survival in the first months of life? Take a few minutes to view this brief video clip illustrating several newborn reflexes. What can young infants see, hear, and smell?

Although vision is their least developed sense, newborns already show a preference for faces. Newborns also have a strong sense of smell. For instance, newborn babies can distinguish the smell of their own mother from that of others. In a study by MacFarlane , 1-week-old babies who were being breastfed were placed between two gauze pads. By 2 years old the weight will have quadrupled, so we can expect that a 2 year old should weigh between 20 and 40 pounds. The average length of a newborn is Children experience rapid physical changes through infancy and early childhood.

Growth slows between 4 and 6 years old: During this time children gain 5—7 pounds and grow about 2—3 inches per year. Once girls reach 8—9 years old, their growth rate outpaces that of boys due to a pubertal growth spurt. This growth spurt continues until around 12 years old, coinciding with the start of the menstrual cycle. By 10 years old, the average girl weighs 88 pounds, and the average boy weighs 85 pounds. However, the nervous system continues to grow and develop.

Each neural pathway forms thousands of new connections during infancy and toddlerhood. This period of rapid neural growth is called blooming. Neural pathways continue to develop through puberty. The blooming period of neural growth is then followed by a period of pruning, where neural connections are reduced.

It is thought that pruning causes the brain to function more efficiently, allowing for mastery of more complex skills Hutchinson, Blooming occurs during the first few years of life, and pruning continues through childhood and into adolescence in various areas of the brain.

The size of our brains increases rapidly. During early childhood ages 3—6 , the frontal lobes grow rapidly. Recalling our discussion of the 4 lobes of the brain earlier in this book, the frontal lobes are associated with planning, reasoning, memory, and impulse control. Therefore, by the time children reach school age, they are developmentally capable of controlling their attention and behavior. Through the elementary school years, the frontal, temporal, occipital, and parietal lobes all grow in size.

Motor development occurs in an orderly sequence as infants move from reflexive reactions e.


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  • For instance, babies first learn to hold their heads up, then to sit with assistance, and then to sit unassisted, followed later by crawling and then walking. Motor skills refer to our ability to move our bodies and manipulate objects. Fine motor skills focus on the muscles in our fingers, toes, and eyes, and enable coordination of small actions e. Gross motor skills focus on large muscle groups that control our arms and legs and involve larger movements e. As motor skills develop, there are certain developmental milestones that young children should achieve [link]. For each milestone there is an average age, as well as a range of ages in which the milestone should be reached.

    An example of a developmental milestone is sitting. On average, most babies sit alone at 7 months old. If a baby is not holding up his head by 4 months old, he is showing a delay. Some developmental delays can be identified and addressed through early intervention. In addition to rapid physical growth, young children also exhibit significant development of their cognitive abilities. Today, developmental psychologists think Piaget was incorrect.

    For example, children as young as 3 months old demonstrated knowledge of the properties of objects that they had only viewed and did not have prior experience with them. In one study, 3-month-old infants were shown a truck rolling down a track and behind a screen. The box, which appeared solid but was actually hollow, was placed next to the track. The truck rolled past the box as would be expected. Then the box was placed on the track to block the path of the truck. When the truck was rolled down the track this time, it continued unimpeded. The infants spent significantly more time looking at this impossible event [link].

    Baillargeon concluded that they knew solid objects cannot pass through each other. Just as there are physical milestones that we expect children to reach, there are also cognitive milestones. It is helpful to be aware of these milestones as children gain new abilities to think, problem solve, and communicate. We can expect children to grasp the concept that objects continue to exist even when they are not in sight by around 8 months old. Because toddlers i.

    Toddlers also point to pictures in books and look in appropriate places when you ask them to find objects. Preschool-age children i. Not only can they count, name colors, and tell you their name and age, but they can also make some decisions on their own, such as choosing an outfit to wear.

    Preschool-age children understand basic time concepts and sequencing e. They also begin to enjoy the use of humor in stories. Because they can think symbolically, they enjoy pretend play and inventing elaborate characters and scenarios. One of the most common examples of their cognitive growth is their blossoming curiosity. An important cognitive change occurs in children this age. Between 3 and 5 years old, children come to understand that people have thoughts, feelings, and beliefs that are different from their own.

    This is known as theory-of-mind TOM. Children can use this skill to tease others, persuade their parents to purchase a candy bar, or understand why a sibling might be angry. When children develop TOM, they can recognize that others have false beliefs Dennett, ; Callaghan et al. Take a look at this video clip showing a false-belief task involving a box of crayons. Cognitive skills continue to expand in middle and late childhood 6—11 years old. Thought processes become more logical and organized when dealing with concrete information [link]. Children at this age understand concepts such as the past, present, and future, giving them the ability to plan and work toward goals.

    Additionally, they can process complex ideas such as addition and subtraction and cause-and-effect relationships. After that point, it begins to improve through adulthood. Because they understand luck and fairness, children in middle and late childhood 6—11 years old are able to follow rules for games.

    One well-researched aspect of cognitive development is language acquisition. As mentioned earlier, the order in which children learn language structures is consistent across children and cultures Hatch, Starting before birth, babies begin to develop language and communication skills. In terms of producing spoken language, babies begin to coo almost immediately.

    Cooing is a one-syllable combination of a consonant and a vowel sound e. Interestingly, babies replicate sounds from their own languages. A baby whose parents speak French will coo in a different tone than a baby whose parents speak Spanish or Urdu. After cooing, the baby starts to babble. Babbling begins with repeating a syllable, such as ma-ma, da-da, or ba-ba. When a baby is about 12 months old, we expect her to say her first word for meaning, and to start combining words for meaning at about 18 months. At about 2 years old, a toddler uses between 50 and words; by 3 years old they have a vocabulary of up to 1, words and can speak in sentences.

    It has been estimated that, 5 year olds understand about 6, words, speak 2, words, and can define words and question their meanings. They can rhyme and name the days of the week. What accounts for such dramatic language learning by children? Behaviorist B.

    Health hazards lurking in the sandbox

    Skinner thought that we learn language in response to reinforcement or feedback, such as through parental approval or through being understood. Chomsky called this mechanism a language acquisition device LAD. Who is correct? Both Chomsky and Skinner are right. Remember that we are a product of both nature and nurture. Psychosocial development occurs as children form relationships, interact with others, and understand and manage their feelings. In social and emotional development, forming healthy attachments is very important and is the major social milestone of infancy.

    Attachment is a long-standing connection or bond with others. Developmental psychologists are interested in how infants reach this milestone. They ask such questions as: How do parent and infant attachment bonds form? How does neglect affect these bonds? In the s, Harlow conducted a series of experiments on monkeys.

    He separated newborn monkeys from their mothers.