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Portrayed as a young female warrior, unarmed but helmeted, Fortitude Plate 6 wears a short pleated skirt with the lion skin of Hercules thrown over her left shoulder. She stands in a relaxed contrapposto but alert to her environment. Justice Fig. But from her left side Justice appears the most static of the Virtues, holding her scales against her hip, with drapery falling in heavy layered folds from her shoulder to the floor. Plate 5 , the perfect embodiment of balance, is conceived in a relaxed contrapposto S curve, her ample drapery clinging to her breasts, stomach, and legs to reveal this stance.

Generous folds of drapery loop over her chest and shoulder, around her hips, and from her high waistband, falling in several tiers down her back. Although stately in mien, Giambologna's Temperance , by comparison with Cambiaso's severe, columnar Prudence in the Lercari Chapel Fig. Both statues are clearly inspired by classical precedents, but the ponderous contrapposto and heavy voluminous drapery of the Cambiaso create a severity markedly different from the suave, slender Grimaldi figure, whose drapery so clearly defines her posture and enhances the impression that even though a niche figure, she is freestanding.

Giambologna's statues, infused with a vitality that produces a vivid sense of each virtue, served as meditational aids. As personifications of complex abstractions, they mediated between the worshiper and the goal of salvation. Fortitude, for instance, was thought to include magnanimity, constancy, trust, confidence, patience, and perseverance. The prayerful contemplation of the image of Fortitude not only brought courage to mind but activated the chain of its associated aspects; a series of meditational exercises enabled the worshiper eventually to reach the desired penitential state.

As "corporeal similitudes," in the words of Saint Thomas Aquinas, these personifications of virtues impress on the memory the qualities the Christian must continually strive to attain. Whereas narrative scenes, inspired by Prudentius's Psychomachia , representing the conflict and triumph of the Virtues over the Vices, were common in the Middle Ages, personifications of the concepts without narrative became customary in the later Middle Ages and after.

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They allowed for a wider range of meanings than could be associated with a literal battle scene. Although the inclusion of the Virtues in the chapel can thus be accounted for, some details of their representation are puzzling. Customarily Fortitude, not Justice, wears a cuirass. Giambologna must have been familiar with another example where Justice is similarly armored—for instance, Bronzino's Innocence tapestry, designed in for Cosimo de' Medici. Conceivably, the Grimaldi Justice wears the cuirass to stress her militant defense of the law, a theme heavily accentuated in Negrone's oration.

Bury's suggestion that Pierio Valeriano's De Hieroglyphica , first published in Basel in , was the source for these unusual additions, which include the laurel of Charity, the poppies of Justice, the skull of Fortitude, and the figs, reins, ruler, and lamb of Temperance, seems reasonable, but other sources may also have played a part, [32] as the combination of traditional and unusual attributes suggests.

Valeriano's compilation of the emblematic tradition is comprehensive, but surely the programmer of the Grimaldi Chapel had access to other texts as well. Grimaldi's own impresa, "Hoc me Dirigite in lucos," comes from the same eclectic tradition as Valeriano's. Whatever sources were gleaned for the Virtues in the chapel program, they represented Luca Grimaldi's hope that his endeavors during his earthly life had made him ready to receive the reward of eternal life. They not only perpetuate a tradition in funeral iconography but also refer more precisely to the importance of good works reaffirmed by the Council of Trent and embraced by Grimaldi himself.

Justification was necessary for salvation, but as the decree stated, "Faith without works is dead. The multivalent meanings of the Grimaldi Chapel program argued here should be understood as reflecting both Luca Grimaldi's concern for his own soul at the Last Judgment and the church's reform program. Although Grimaldi was no different from thousands of others with his resources, his choices for the program of his chapel were unusual in their combination and emphases. They reveal both his awareness of decrees laid down by the Council of Trent and his willingness to accede to them.

The major components of the chapel's decorative program, the six freestanding statues of Virtues, already discussed, and the narrative relief cycle of Christ's Passion, were stipulated in the contract of These additions enriched, and focused more clearly, the essential meaning of the original program. The crucifix added the central episode to the Passion story, referred specifically to the dedication of the chapel to the Holy Cross, and fulfilled the requirement for such an image made by Monsignore Bossio during his apostolic visitation to Genoa.

The Sacrifice of Isaac is a well-known prefiguration of Christ's Crucifixion, whereas Joseph Sold into Egypt provides an analogue to Christ sold by Judas and a counterpart to Pilate's exchange of Christ for his own political security. As I mentioned in discussing the Virtues, I know of only two other examples combining Passion cycles and Virtues in funerary art, and their. The upper sarcophagus, whose contents remain a matter of conjecture, is surrounded by an infancy cycle combined with statuettes of heroes.

Whether or not Colleoni himself devised this program, the link of his own remains with the Passion cycle and Virtues remains noteworthy. Afterward dismantled and scattered, it has now been partly reconstructed in the Villa Borromeo on Isola Bella, Lake Como. The Birago, dedicated to the Passion of Christ, with a cycle much more extensive than that in the Grimaldi Chapel, [5] includes twelve Passion scenes, six of them identical to the Grimaldi Chapel reliefs in their stress on Christ's trial.

Unfortunately the present reconstruction at Isola Bella, which includes saints and evangelists as well as Virtues, cannot be relied on to provide links between Passion scenes and Virtues. A group of Flemish rood screens, in Mons, Tessenderloo, and Aerschot, suggest that a tradition of combining Passion scenes with Virtues may have existed in that context. The one in Sainte-Waudru in Mons Fig. Although the Virtues and Passion scenes constituted the major part of the program, it also included prophets and three other biblical events.

The destruction of almost all rood screens in northern Europe as well as in Italy and the corresponding lack of a scholarly study of their iconography leave unanswered vital questions: whether the Mons screen was typical, the extent to which its program was determined by the liturgy, and the function of the screen as the place from which the Gospel and Epistle were read. Even the isolated examples cited do not provide a coherent source for either the general program of the Grimaldi Chapel or its concentration on Pilate's role in the narrative cycle. Pilate assumed enormous importance for the Catholic Reformation church as the symbol of the moral conflict inherent in judgment.

As Roman governor, the earthly judge of Christ, and a fallible human being, Pilate faced a dilemma: if he freed Christ, his political career was finished; if he condemned him, his moral position was indefensible. A series of links between the patron of the chapel, Luca Grimaldi, and the Catholic Reformation in the aftermath of the Council of Trent accounts for the unique features of the Grimaldi Chapel. What emerges from an investigation of these complex interconnections is the strong likelihood that Luca Grimaldi or a close advisor, rather than Giambologna, planned the program for the chapel.

Grimaldi's involvement with the construction of his chapel was intense and his piety well known. The Council of Trent, the longest of all the general councils of the church and the most far-reaching in its effects, had closed sixteen years before. It had met three times —47, —52, — The immediate impetus for calling the council in the s may have been the failure of efforts to reconcile the Lutherans and Rome at the Colloquy of Regensburg in But the need for reform within the Roman Catholic church had been recognized long before Luther's urgent call.

Circumstances, including war between Francis I and Charles V, Farnese family quarrels, and difficulties securing lodging in Trent, delayed the opening until When the council convened, the Catholic church was on the defensive; eighteen years later, in , when it ended, the church was in a much stronger position and the papacy was taking the offensive. Among the doctrinal matters the council confronted were the meaning of the Eucharist and the Mass, the redefinition of justification, and the veneration of relics.

High on the list of disciplinary matters was the reform of the clergy, particularly with respect to residency requirements and proper. The decrees issued by the Council of Trent served as the blueprint for a massive reform effort that lasted well into the seventeenth century. This monumental body of legislation was subsequently applied locally by zealous reformers, such as Carlo Borromeo and Gabriele Paleotti.

The provincial synods ordered at Trent were crucial to the reform process, providing the means to elaborate on and implement the conciliar decrees. Borromeo set the example by calling his first Milanese synod in ; soon after, in , Cipriano Pallavicino called the first Genoese synod. The relics in the Grimaldi Chapel—a piece of Christ's cross and a piece of the crown of thorns, both Passion relics—constitute the first link between Luca Grimaldi and Tridentine reform.

The veneration of holy relics by the Catholic church, practiced for centuries, was attacked vehemently by Protestants in the sixteenth century. Answering this attack, the Council of Trent, at its twenty-fifth session, in , reiterated the importance of the practice. The detailed instructions for their care and exhibition, given by Monsignore Bossio during his visit to the Genoese Cathedral of San Lorenzo, were recorded in a significant document of Great prestige attached to the possession of relics. Luca Grimaldi's power and position must have enabled him to have the two relics of Christ's Passion, already in the church, moved to his family chapel.

The inscription identifies the relics as. Sacre Crucis, eis spine corone, plurimisque Sanctorum reliquus templo nuper huc Translatis, Lucas Grimaldus Francisci filius, sacrarium hoc P. Luca Grimaldi, son of Francesco, piously set up and dedicated this shrine for several relics of the saints, and of his holy cross and crown of thorns, recently transferred here to this chapel.

Thus it is clear that they were already in the church when Grimaldi acquired the chapel, which was dedicated to the holy cross. The precise relationship between the Grimaldi Chapel and the relics is not clear, but enough is known to establish a plausible connection. A chapel of the holy cross had existed in the church at least from , when records mention that an Ansaldo Grimaldi, Luca's distant relative, left money for perpetual masses to be said there. This chapel, however, was not the one Luca Grimaldi acquired, for the inscription clearly states that Luca moved the relics of the cross and of the crown of thorns to his own chapel.

In all probability he had the dedication transferred to this chapel as well. Its location adjacent to the high altar, its sacred relics, and its dedication to the holy cross all indicate that Grimaldi was one of the most prominent communicants of San Francesco di Castelletto at that time.

The Grimaldi Chapel, as the repository of Passion relics, was undoubtedly the site where each year on Good Friday the rite of the Adoratio Crucis Adoration of the Cross took place. With minor variations, it was observed all over Western Europe from the seventh or eighth century. According to the Regularis Concordia of Saint Athelwold, which conforms to the authorized use of Rome, the ceremonial opens with two deacons holding the cross before the altar chanting "Reproaches," to which subdeacons and a chorus respond.

The cross, which has been laid on a cushion, is uncovered, and three antiphons and a hymn are sung. Then the abbot, with half the chorus, prostrates himself and sings the seven penitential psalms, kissing the cross to close the ceremony. The scenario might have been as follows: a reliquary, undoubtedly a cross, containing pieces of the cross and crown of thorns, was brought up from the Grimaldi Chapel crypt into the chapel proper for the cele-. As the symbolic sepulchrum domini the chapel altar, with Giambologna's relief of the Entombment mounted as an antependium on the front and the crucifix suspended above, would have been the center of these ceremonies.

Together with the rest of the Passion cycle on the chapel walls, the two paintings Joseph Sold into Egypt [Fig. The Passion of Christ, a central concern of the Catholic reform movement, resonated in the program of the Grimaldi Chapel. Granted the role of the relics and the dedication of the chapel in the choice of a Passion cycle, other religious and historical forces undoubtedly influenced the selection as well.

Among those to be explored in this chapter are the Council of Trent's renewed emphasis on the Sacrament of the Eucharist and the doctrine of justification, and the observance of special Franciscan devotions. A central controversy between Catholics and Protestants during the sixteenth century was the meaning of the Eucharist. The Catholic Reformation church's efforts to clarify it and renew eucharistic devotions rested on the doctrine, paramount in Catholic belief, that the Eucharist reenacts Christ's sacrifice, the central event of the Passion. Renewed emphasis on the events of the Passion thus became the means for strengthening devotion to the Eucharist.

Tridentine decrees both stimulated and reflected the reforms that took place in the church, emphasizing the Passion and making Christ's sacrifice the climax of the Mass. In its twenty-second session, in , the Council of Trent reiterated the truth of the doctrine of Transubstantiation, reaffirming, in the face of the heretical ideas of Luther, Calvin, and Zwingli, that in the Mass the living God is present in the Eucharist.

Twenty years after the conclusion of the council, Robert Bellarmine defended the doctrine of Transubstantiation in lectures at the Roman College and made it the cornerstone of his refutation of Protestantism in his Disputationes de controversiis — A corollary of the controversy over Transubstantiation was the discussion of the Real Presence of Christ in the Sacrament of the Eucharist.

Luther did not deny the Real Presence; according to Zwingli, however,.

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But that the natural body is really present in the Supper by way of essence, or is orally taken and eaten. After the Consecration of the bread and wine, our Lord Jesus Christ, true God and man, is truly, really and substantially contained under the perceptible species of bread and wine. If anyone denies that the body and blood, together with the soul and divinity, of our Lord Jesus Christ, and therefore, the whole Christ, is truly, really, and substantially contained in the Sacrament of the most holy Eucharist, but says that Christ is present in the Sacrament only as in a sign or figure, or by His power: let him be anathema.

One of the practical results of the new emphasis on the Eucharist was the modification of the liturgy. In the Council of Trent appointed a commission to study abuses in the mass, with the ultimate goal of producing a standard missal. Another result of the intense preoccupation with the Eucharist was the incorporation of the Office of Corpus Domini in into the Breviarium Romanum , again exemplifying the Catholic Reformation church's regularization and codification of traditional church practice.

The publication of the catechism of was another part of the campaign to codify vital church beliefs; its contents reflect a similar concern with the Eucharist and the Passion. The catechism states, for example, that "the Eucharist is superior to all [sacraments] in holiness and in the number and greatness of its mysteries. In an attempt to involve the laity more in worship, the Council of Trent, at its twenty-second session, in , issued decrees urging lay participation in the mass and the reception of the Eucharist with every attendance at mass.

Receive daily what is of benefit to you daily. The cult of the Eucharist in San Francesco di Castelletto was a particular interest of the Confraternity of Union and Charity, a group of "nobili antichi" old nobles connected to that church. Presumably, a prominent family chapel such as the Grimaldi was the site of frequent masses and was open to communicants other than family and clergy.

How important these masses and other services were we may surmise from the discovery that Luca Grimaldi's father, Francesco, provided for them in his will of and codicil of He put aside 1, lire from his "luoghi" shares of stock in the Banco di San Giorgio, the income from which was to be used for the celebration of masses, for other religious services, for the upkeep of the Grimaldi Chapel, and for the maintenance of the Church of San Francesco and the monastery.

Borromeo, in his time the most ardent exponent of devotions to the Passion, not only advocated daily Communion but also instructed that ciboria containing the Sacrament be made for high altars and, furthermore, that these ciboria be decorated with scenes from the Passion of Christ.

It is tempting to think that Borromeo's influence was felt in Genoa in the s when the program for the elaborate Corpus Domini silver casket, which had been commissioned by the comune for the cathedral, was changed from a cycle including scenes from the Old and New Testament to one representing only the Passion Fig. Borromeo's nephew Don Ferrante Gonzaga was engaged in. Christ's Passion, a divine truth presented as a historical narrative, served church doctrine and practice, involving the laity more ardently in worship.

In both the catechism of and the Apostles' Creed the. Christ's sacrifice became part of historical reality; his physical suffering proved his humanity and consequently the greatness of his sacrifice. Events surrounding the Passion and details of the physical suffering that Christ endured, documented by Scripture, provided a moving drama with which communicants could empathize and identify.

As important an issue for the Catholic church as that of the Eucharist or Transubstantiation was the doctrine of justification. At the center of the battle between Protestant reformers and Catholics was the question whether justification could be achieved by faith alone, as Protestants claimed, or must be accompanied by good works, as Catholics believed.

For Catholics, Christ's Passion was an essential part of justification. A passage relating the Passion to salvation, a concept especially relevant for a funeral chapel, is found in the decree regarding the doctrine of justification issued at the sixth session, in , at Trent. But though He died for all, yet all do not receive the benefit of His death, but those only to whom the merit of His Passion is communicated; because as truly as man would not be born unjust, if they were not born through propagation of the seed of Adam since by that propagation they contract through him when they are conceived, injustice as their own, so if they were not born again in Christ, they would never be justified, since in that new birth there is bestowed upon them, through the merit of His Passion, the grace by which they are made just.


Reiterating the importance of the Passion for achieving justification, the decree states that Christ "merited for us Justification by His most holy Passion on the wood of the cross. Franciscan devotions may have been a further stimulus in the selection of a Passion cycle for the Grimaldi Chapel. Two of these devotions, to the Passion of Christ and the closely related Via Crucis, are clearly connected to the Grimaldi program.

In a Franciscan convent and church like San Francesco di Castelletto, which dated back to the time of Saint Francis, these devotions must have drawn special strength from the feeling of connection to the early days of the order. Saint Francis himself set the example for the Franciscans, who held Christ's Passion in special veneration. So compelling was the meaning. Written in the late thirteenth century, it exhorts the reader to experience step-by-step all the physical and psychological pain Christ suffered at the hands of His tormentors.

He who wishes to glory in the Cross and the Passion must dwell with continued meditation on the mysteries and events that occurred. Therefore I exhort you that, if you have studiously considered the things said above on His life, you much more diligently concentrate the whole spirit and all the virtues, for here is shown more especially this charity of His that should kindle all our hearts.

After leading the reader through each painful step of the Flagellation and its effects on Christ, the Franciscan author urges, "Here, then consider Him diligently for a long time; and if you do not feel compassion at this point, you may count yours a heart of stone. In recognition of the order's special relationship to the Passion, the pope in made Franciscans the guardians of the Holy Sepulcher and custodians of the Via Crucis in Jerusalem.

The Franciscans thus assumed the mission of promoting devotion to the holy places associated with Christ's Passion. The vivid experience of retracing Christ's steps on that last agonizing journey served to stimulate its depiction in painting, sculpture, and other media throughout the Christian world. After several centuries, devotions centered on the Passion crystallized into the fourteen stations of the cross, which Pope Clement XII officially established in , chiefly because they had been popularized by the Franciscan friar Lawrence of Porto Maurizio.

Between and the devotion to the stations of the cross evolved gradually; before codification the number and selection of scenes varied. The prominent Franciscan Bernardino Caimi provided a strong impetus in the development of the stations. He had served as. Acutely aware of the devotional value for pilgrims of visiting the places where Christ's Passion actually took place, Bernardino conceived the idea of reproducing these sites in his native Lombardy.


After his return from Jerusalem he searched for the appropriate location, which he found in the hills surrounding Varallo, northwest of Milan. The realization of Bernardino's brilliant concept, known as the Sacro Monte, took three hundred years, but long before its completion it became a favorite place of religious pilgrimage.

Although not restricted to the Passion, the narrative at Varallo does focus on it. The popular realism of the life-size scenes enabled pilgrims to relive each event represented. If Bernardino Caimi initially inspired this New Jerusalem in the Lombardy hills, Carlo Borromeo became its promoter and overseer, spreading the fame of the Sacro Monte as a pilgrimage site.

The selection of Christ before Pilate as the first scene in the Grimaldi Chapel establishes an important connection between Franciscan devotions and the Grimaldi Passion cycle. The match therefore seems more than fortuitous, especially since at the time the Grimaldi Chapel was being planned, no doctrinal codification, or even artistic convention, determined the beginning scene of Passion cycles.

This lack of codification clearly emerges in Francesco Panigarola's Cento Ragionamenti sopra la Passione di Nostro Signore, commissioned by Borromeo and published in Genoa in Although the factors I have discussed all determined the choice of some sort of Passion cycle for the chapel, they do not account for the unusual politico-historical emphasis of the Grimaldi cycle, its focus on Christ's civil trial. Additional determinants of the scenes selected for the cycle relate not only to Catholic Reformation thought but also to contemporary religious drama and to Luca Grimaldi's personal history.

If the Passion cycles are classified, according to their emphasis, as historical, devotional, or physical, the Grimaldi cycle clearly belongs among. With its thematic and dramatic orientation to the political meaning of the Passion, it largely eschews the devotional or emotional overtones of the other two types. Even by comparison with other historical Passion cycles the Grimaldi is unique in stressing the figure of Pilate. This exceptional focus highlights his role as political judge.

Isaac's deliverance from the hands of his father corresponds antithetically to Christ before Pilate; that is, it recalls Christ's deliverance into the hands of the Jews. Joseph being sold by his brothers parallels Christ being sold by Judas and, by extension, Pilate yielding Christ in exchange for his own political security. The uniqueness of the Grimaldi program becomes even more apparent in a comparison with two other nearly contemporary Passion cycles of the historical type, both of which Giambologna must have known.

One is the silver casket made for the Corpus Domini feast in Genoa Fig. Moreover, unlike the Grimaldi cycle, neither the casket nor the Gonfalone cycle presents a temporally and dramatically compressed portion of the Passion story. The Corpus Domini cycle has one scene representing the religious trial and one the political: Christ before Caiaphas and Christ before Pilate.

Of all the possible trial scenes that could have been represented, the Gonfalone cycle includes only one, Christ before Caiaphas, and that is part of the religious judgment. The Gonfalone cycle covers a selection of the major events, from the Entry into Jerusalem to the Resurrection. In contrast, the program of the Grimaldi Passion cycle Plates 7—12, Fig.

Pilate, along with Christ, becomes a principal actor in the drama. In addition to the two paintings typologically referring to Pilate, two of the six reliefs show Pilate judging Christ, and a third depicts Pilate showing Christ to the people. Half the cycle as it was first planned, then, involves Pilate. The other three reliefs represent direct results of Pilate's decisions.

Pilate may. Although no visual tradition exists to explain the Grimaldi focus on Pilate, historical circumstances suggest reasons for it. The Council of Trent reflected the church's desire to clarify and codify existing doctrine and practices and to eliminate those considered unacceptable. Its determination to explain and systematize extended to religious and historical events. Thus Pilate was a pivotal figure in the Passion story. He was, first, a necessary part of God's grand design for the redemption of humankind. Pilate's function as the instrument of God could thus explain the scandal of the Messiah's being crucified as an ordinary criminal; and Pilate's unjust behavior could be viewed as necessary to the fulfillment of God's plan.

The official historian of the Catholic Reformation church, Cesare Baronius — , writing in his Annales ecclesiastici, published soon after the Grimaldi Chapel was completed, states the church's position on Pilate when he says, "These things were being handled by a certain divine management, so that the Son of God might suffer the punishment of the cross for the redemption of mankind.

Baronius's biblical narrative was clearly constructed to serve the didactic program of the Catholic Reformation church. This historicism, manifest in the evocation of the church's apostolic period, explains the prominence of Pilate in contemporary church writing and doctrine. Baronius is the exemplar. In his efforts to be thorough and accurate, to present as complete a history of Christ's life as possible, he gives a detailed account of the Passion story, treating all the particulars of Pilate's actions as well as the reasons behind them. Baronius affirms Pilate's crucial role for the Catholic reform church when he invites the reader to "linger awhile among these things that were performed by Pilate.

Baronius, as the church's spokesman, viewed Pilate not only as God's instrument in his plan for man's salvation, but also as a figure essential in validating the historical Jesus. The whole of Jesus' life became part of history as well as divine revelation, so it was important to recount its events as they actually happened. None of these was more significant than his death and its circumstances; therefore Pilate's tenure as Roman. Early in church history the importance of fixing the time of Christ's Passion was recognized when the Apostles' Creed stated that Christ "suffered under Pontius Pilate.

But, if we find it here recorded with such historical minuteness, that Jesus Christ suffered when Pilate was procurator of Judea, the pastor will explain the reason—it is, that by fixing the time, as the Apostle does, in the sixth chapter of his first Epistle to Timothy, so important and so necessary an event may be ascertained by all with greater certainty; and to show that the event verified the prediction of the Saviour: "They shall deliver him to the Gentiles, to be mocked, and scourged, and crucified.

Having established the historical veracity of the events of Christ's Passion, the church cast Pilate as the instrument of God and unwilling executor of the people's will. The Grimaldi cycle follows the thinking of the church, showing Pilate torn between a sense of justice and political expediency. This view of Pilate began in the Gospels, was expanded in the apocryphal Acts of Pilate, and appears in many other accounts of the story written by historians and theologians such as Justin Martyr, Eusebius, Tacitus, Ambrose, and finally Baronius. In the Gospel accounts of the trial, Pilate emerges as nearly blameless in condemning Jesus, while the Jews, by implication, are guilty.

Luke —24 and John —40 and —16 illustrate this point of view through narratives composed chiefly of dialogue between Pilate and Christ. Jesus appears repeatedly before Pilate, who interrogates him and finds no justification for punishment. To placate the crowd, Pilate orders Christ flogged.

When this tactic proves futile, Pilate, hoping to avoid responsibility, offers the crowd a choice between Barabbas and Christ, thinking the crowd will choose that the criminal be crucified. The worst that can be said of Pilate, according to this way of thinking, is that he was weak. The decision was, in any case, inevitable. The apocryphal book Acts of Pilate offers more detail and is probably the most extensive treatment of the trial and of Pilate's part in Christ's.

Pilate did not intend the flagellation as a prelude to crucifixion; as he himself said, according to Luke , "I will therefore chastise and release Him. As further proof of Pilate's good intentions, the author of the Acts narrates the story of Pilate's conversion to Christianity on his return to Rome from Judea.

Of the early commentators on the trial of Jesus only Philo and Josephus deviate from this benign view of Pilate, portraying him as a corrupt and unjust administrator who loved violence. Patristic writers like Ambrose and Augustine follow the same view as the Gospels and the Acts of Pilate but are even more explicit in condemning the Jews. Likewise in this matter, I think that of all judges one type is in the forefront—the ones who are ready to condemn those they think are innocent.

Nevertheless, the role played by Pilate demonstrates that the gentiles are more tolerable than the Jews, and more capable of being admonished to the faith by means of divine works. But what a sort are those who crucified the lord of majesty! Those who demanded the death of an innocent man ask no absolution for their unjustified homicide. Iniquity is ruled by its hatred of innocence and its love of wickedness; concerning which thing, the interpretation of the name gives an image to the figure. Barabbas means "son of the father" in Latin.

Therefore, those to whom it is said, "You are from your father the devil" appear as ones who will prefer Antichrist, the son of their father, to the true Son of God. Ten centuries later, Baronius revived many details and attitudes of Ambrose's account, carrying on the Gospel tradition but condemning the Jews more vehemently and exonerating Pilate:. Pilate began a hearing in accordance with the serious offense, asking him whether he was the king of the Jews.

But when it had been understood that his kingdom was not of this world, again going out of the Praetorium and up to the leaders of the priesthood, who were waiting outside, he testified that he found no reason for the death penalty in that man. And he had led Jesus with him, and when many Judeans accused him and he did not respond to them, although he was urged to deal with these charges by the governor, Pilate indeed marveled much.

But with the priests and ministers clamoring that he should be crucified, Pilate, when again he bore witness that he found no reason for death in him, still desired to set him free. Finally, nevertheless, with those men urging and forcing it upon him, that if he were to let him go he would be an enemy of Caesar, he sat before the tribunal and, reckoning that there was no possibility of freeing him, since they were clamoring rather violently and the uproar was becoming greater, affirming that he was undertaking to do a most unfair thing, he called for water.

When it had been received, he washed his hands before the people, saying: "I am free from the guilt of the blood of this righteous man, and you yourselves have witnessed it. Pilate's act of washing his hands assumes great importance for Baronius, who says, "He washed his hands and professed his own innocence of the deed, not at all in accordance with Roman custom or any custom of the gentiles.

Because it symbolically exonerates Pilate from the guilt of Christ's death, it must be stressed, in the Catholic Reformation view, as part of God's grand plan. The hand-washing scene had not been especially popular in art since the early Christian period, a time similarly preoccupied with establishing the historical validity of Christ's life on earth.

Its presence in a short cycle like the Grimaldi leaves no doubt that it coincides with Tridentine thought, establishing one more link between the chapel program and the official church position. Walter Harris Dublin, ; F. Sermones de Tempore : Heidelberg Univ. Salem 9, A f. Coimbra: Rodrigo de Carvalho Coutinho, Probably born in the last decade of the thirteenth century in the region of Rouerge as son of an Occitan poet of the same name. He studied at the University of Toulouse and afterwards became a secular priest.

Sometime in the s he joined the Franciscan order, where he soon drifted into a Spiritual orbit and familiarized himself with ideas of Peter of John Olivi. Raimon was also an avid defender of the crusades and criticized Philip IV of France when he failed to fulfill his crusading vows.

After his narrow escape he left the Franciscan order in , first returned to the status of secular priest and later becoming a Cistercian. Raimon is known for his many Occitan and Latin poems, many of which touch in a very polemic way on political and social issues, and that stand in a well-known literary tradition in the Toulouse region. He also wrote more didactic poetry, letters, computation treatises, and a famous Doctrinal de trobar doctrines of composition , which he composed around and dedicated to King Peter IV of Aragon.

This work discusses poetic genres, as well as the functions of and the delight that poetry can provide. As early as , the Catalan poet Joan de Castellnou wrote a glossary on the Doctrinal , showing that the work had an impact on contemporary literate society. Andrew P. Els trobadors i les relacions catalanooccitanes Edicions Universitat Barcelona, 4 dec. Revista de Cultures Medievals , Member of the Aragon province. Apostolic preacher. Wrote a vernacular booklet on moral theology, the edition of which I have not yet been able to trace.

Born in Marseille, in the family of the local Viscounts. Lector at Marseilles in He was a bachelor in theology when he was elected Minister General in In the course of his service at the head of the order, Raymond visited several provinces. Hence, he visited England in and presided at the provincial chapter of London Assumption Day of Mary, 15 August, In September of that year, Raymond Gaufredi visited the Irish province, which was marred by the antagonism between Irish and English friars.

In October , Gaufredi was back at Oxford, where he preached two times, namely on Sunday 28 October probably in the Dominican church , and on All Saints day probably at the Franciscan church. Gaufredi was not ill-disposed towards the cause of the spirituals. After the death of Pope Nicholas IV in , lifted several sanctions against the Spirituals and other Franciscan critics. Hence, he released Roger Bacon from prison and Angelo da Clareno and several of his followers were allowed to become missionaries in the East Greece, Armenia.

Likewise, he proposed Peter of John Olivi for a teaching position at the important Louvain studium. Sermones : Worcester Cathedral Q 46 f. Little, p. Sub conversacione autem comprendit virtutes morales, sub veritate virtutes intellectuales, sub fide virtutes theologicas, gratuitas et speciales.

Igitur in religione christiana optinetur liberacio anime: quod patet. Hec enim perfecte liberant animam prout hic est possibile …. Cum igitur constet in hiis totaliter humana perfectio, et isti in hiis sunt perfecti, constat quod status apostolicus est perfectissimus et preclarissime sapientie et dignitatis summe. Obedientes enim fuerunt et pauperes, et per consequens humiles; obedientia enim voluntatem propriam aliene supponit.

Little, pp. Merito igitur per sapientiam notantur sanctorum merita, que non sunt nisi a septem donis Spiritus Sancti, que omnia continet sapientia. Ista autem sapientia maxime vigebat in apostolis. Sapientia vero per vim propriam animam depurat degustationem boni, in quo plenum gaudium consistit. According to Sylvain Piron this work should be ascribed to the non-Franciscan scholar Raymond de Marseille.

Gaufredi probably had some alchemical interests. That could explain the fact that Juan Gil de Zamora dedicated his Contra venena et animalia venenosa [Liber contra venena et animalia venenosa, ed. Raymund Gaufredi', Collectanea Franciscana 4 , Parisiis 9 iunii confirmat conventionem initam inter Provincias Austriae et Alemaniae superioris de terminis eleemosynarum conquirendarum in confiniis , ed. Bihl, AFH 36 , French friar active in the Toulouse regon, who transferred to Italy during the reform of the third order regular in France during the pontificate of Clement VIII.

Raymond became superior of the tertiary Sant'Antonio da Padova friary in Tivoli and wrote there a work entited Istae sunt indulgentiae, privilegia, et gratiae Tertii Ordinis S. Francisci, per plures et diversos Pontifices, etc. This work would have been issued by the printer Antonio Blado, who guided the printshop of the Camera apostolica from onwards. Revisada XX Madrid, , Majorcan poet-philosopher and missionary. After a religious conversion, he left his wife and children and engaged in a life of pilgrimage, mission and writing.

Wrote a host of works in various languages on theology, mission and crusading issues, established a school for Franciscan missionaries to the Saracens at Majorca Miramar, which functioned until , and probably was killed by Moslims during his third attempt at bringing the Christian faith to the inhabitants of Northern Africa. Ramon Llull wrote more than works, and the process of sorting out the versions, editions and translations is still ongoing. Casanatense ff.

Testamentum : Paris, Bibl. At present all his Latin works are again appearing in the Corpus Christianorum Continuatio Mediaevalis series of Brepols. Besides, there are several other opera omnia editions. See in general:. Raimundi Lulli Opera Latina , ed. Raymundi Lulli Opera Omnia , ed. Main, Another reprint appeared as: Beati Raymundi Lulli Opera. Facsimile Reprint of the Edition Moguntina , ed. Wolff Turnhout: Brepols, Obres de Ramon Lull , ed. Palma de Majorca, [Catelan edition]. Ramon Lull, Obras literarias , Biblioteca de autores cristianos, 31 Madrid, [Spanish anthology].

Selected works of Ramon Llull , ed. Bonner, 2 Vols. Princeton, [English anthology]. The Catalan version is edited in: Obres de Ramon Lull , ed. Salzinger Mainz, , Vols. Ars Compendiosa Inveniendi Veritatem c. I, treatise vii, pp. Doctrina pueril pedagogical work, ?

The Catalan version of the work is edited by G. Schibin in the series Els nostres classics Barcelona, A French translation of this text has been prepared by A. Edizione critica , ed. Maria Carla Marinoni, Studi e ricerche Milan, Llull also made a Latin version of the text. This has been edited in: Raimundi Lulli, Opera latina annis composita , ed. Llibre de virtus e de pecats , ed. A new edition appeared as: Ramon Llull, Llibre del gentil e dels tres savis , ed.

An edition with Spanish translation has appeared as: Ramon Llull, Libro del gentil y los tres sabios. Libre de demostracions logical and apologetical work, ? This work was later translated into Latin. The Catalan text has been edited in: Obres de Ramon Lull , ed. Libro de los correlativos. Liber correlativorum innatorum , trans. Liber Principiorum Theologiae ? Liber de Sancto Spiritu apologetical work, ?

Antologia , ed. Blanquerna utopist pedagogical novel, The text has also been edited as: Blaquerna , ed. Barcelona, , and repeatedly thereafter. A French translation has appeared as: Raymond Lulle, Blaquerne , trad. A new facsimile edition based on what? Ars demonstrativa c. A Catalan version of the text has been edited in Obres de Ramon Lull , ed. An English tradition can be found in A. Lectura super Figuras Artis Demonstrative ? Quattuor Libri Principiorum. Barcelona: Universitat de Barcelona, Patrick Gifreu Coll.

An English translation can be found in A. Escala, ; Ramon Llull, Livro das Bestas c. More recently, it was edited as: Ramon Llull, Book of the Beasts , trans. Homenatge a Miquel Batllori 1 , ; Libro de le bestie: traduzione veneta trecentesca , ed. The Catelan text has been edited in: Obres de Ramon Lull , ed.

Virginis Mariae ? Libre de sancta Maria. Katalanisch-deutsch , ed. The Latin text has been published as: De Laudibus B. Virginis Mariae , ed. Horas de nostra Dona sancta Maria poetry, ? A Catelan prose version is edited in: Obres de Ramon Lull , ed. This edition is based on the doctoral thesis edition defended at Freiburg in Br. The Catalan text can be found in Obres de Ramon Lull , ed. Review in Wissenschaft und Weisheit 79 , ff. Desconhort poetry, , edited in Obres de Ramon Lull , ed.

Also edited by A. Lo desconhort , ed. The Catalan text has been edited in Obres de Ramon Lull , ed. In Cypro. A Spanish translation has appeared as Proverbis de Ramon , trans. For a modern French edition, see Proverbes de Raymond , trans. Contemplatio Raymundi Edited in Obres de Ramon Lull , ed. Keicher, in: O. Traduction de latin avec notes et appendices , trans. Schib, Els nostres classics Barcelona, Arbor philosophiae, De levitate et ponderositate elementorum, Desolatio Raimundi , ed. Partial translations can be found in the anthologies of Sala Molins et.

An English translation appeared as The Tree of Love , trans. Allison Peers London, De levitate et ponderositate elementorum year? Desolatio Raimundi edited in Raimundi Lulli, Opera latina Oracions de Ramon , edited in Obres de Ramon Lull , ed. Cant de Ramon poetry, , edited in: Obres de Ramon Lull , ed. II Palma de Majorca, , The Catalan text has been edited by J. Raimundi Lulli Opera Latina in civitate Maioricensi anno composita , ed. Continuatio mediaevalis, ; Raimundi Lulli opera latina, 21 Turnhout, Brepols, Mil proverbis , edited in: Obres de Ramon Lull , ed.

See also In Cypro. Lohr Hamburg, See also: Disputa entre la fe i l'enteniment , trans. Liber de Demonstratione per Aequiparantiam logical and theological text, , edited in Raymundi Lulli Opera Omnia , ed. In or around , the work was translated into Hebrew. This version has been edited as: Ha-Melacha ha-Ketzara. Testo latino a fronte , introd.

Marta M. Romano Milan: Bompianti, Also edited in: Raimundi Lulli , Opera Latina , ed. Also edited by E. V Palma de Majorca, Quaestio 96 , ed. Atti del Congresso Mariologico Francescano , ed. Stefano M. Vita Coaetanea autobiography, , ed. Also translated into Spanish by P. There are several other translations in the anthologies of Sala-Molins and Bonner.

Signaled with comments in AFH , For an Italian version, see: Ramon Llull, La vita coetanea , trans. More recently, the work was translated into Italian as: Raimundo Lullo, Phantasticus. Mario Polia et al. Rimini: Il Cerchio Iniziative Editoriali, Testamentum Raymundi , edited by A. Also translated in E. The Catalan text has been edited by M. I Palma de Majorca, , Affatus , ed. The Book of the Order of Chivalry , trans. The work was originally written in Catalan between and Libro del ascenso y descenso del entendimiento , ed.

Alegre Gorri, Obrs maestras del milenio 61 Barcelona, O Livro dos Anjos ? Salamanca: Ediciones Naturaleza y Grazia, Batalla, L. Marginalien 4. Raimundus Lullus. Ulli Roth Heidelberg, Escala, ; Ramon Llull, Libro de amigo y amado , trans. Amendations were given in Sbaralea, Supplementum ed. In the twentieth century the study of Llull became a veritable industry.

For a bibliographical guide to the writings on Llull until , see: R. Among the older literature, see for instance: E. Among the more recent studies, see in particular: Walter W. Charles E. Jahrhunderts', Studia Lulliana 36 with edition on ; Mark D. Johnston, The Evangelical rhetoric of Ramon Lull. Homeanje a D. Russell , ed.

Homenage al Dr. Manuel Riu i Riu Barcelona, , ; J. Hames, The art of conversion.

Preface and Acknowledgments

Christianity and Kabbalah in the thirteenth century, The Medieval Mediterranean. Kolloquium Kloster Fischingen , ed. Modalaussagen in der Geschichte der Metaphysik , ed. Hillgarth, Diplomatari lul. Hillgarth , ed. Thomas E. Burns, Mark D. Una teologia per la missione, trans. Der Baum des Wissens von Ramon Llull. Oktober , ed. Lola Badia et al. Essays in Honor of J. Burman, Mark D. Jorge J. Regensburg: S. Poetica, retorica e filologia della memoria. Ramon Llull al s. Bergmans Amsterdam: Elzevier B.

La vita, il pensiero e le opere S. Maria degli Angeli: Ed. Rialp, ; Lulle et la condemnation de Ramon Llull und die Katalanische Tradition.

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  7. Linguaggi politici, valori identitari, progetti di governo in area catalano-aragonese , Fonte e ricerche, 20 Padua: Editrici Francescane, [a. Pring-Mill, El microcosmos lul. Jan G. Reegen, Luis A. Romano, Instrumenta Patristica et Mediaevalia: Research on the Inheritance of Early and Medieval Christianity, 49; Subsidia Lulliana, 3 Turnhout: Brepols, [wide-ranging volume, with the cooperation of many of the current Llull scholars.

    Pring-Mill, Il microcosmo lulliano , ed. Sara Muzzi, trans. Antonianum, ; La mistica parola per parola , ed. Luigi Borriello, Maria R. L'amic i l'amat. Anuari 13 , ; Josep M. An introduction to his lifw, works and thought , ed. Supplementum Lullianum, 2 Turnhout: Brepols, [cf. Romano, Instrumenta Patristica e Mediaevalia: Research on the Inheritance of Early and Medieval Christianity, 49; Subsidia Lulliana, 3 Turnhout: Brepols Publishers, [wide-ranging collection with an intellectual-historical approach and with a umber of esays pertaining to Llull's missions and educational activities.

    Alexander Fidora Bernd F. Mensch und Natur in der Renaissance. Festschrift zum Sabrina Ebbersmeyer et al. Saggi di lettura , ed. Antonianum, I francescani lungo l'itinerario del Corridoio Bizantino e della Via Amerina , ed. Studia Lulliana , ; A. La rinuncia al papato nella storia del diritto e della chiesa , Biblioteca della Rivista di Storia e Letteratura Religiosa. Studi, 29 Florence: Leo S. Olschki Editore, Revista internacional de literatura i cultura medieval i moderna 4 , ; Robert D. Revista internacional de literatura i cultura medieval i moderna 4 , ; Annemarie C.

    Bartoli, W. Mastromatteo Bologna: Edizione Dehoniane, , See also: A. Friar from the Provence. Confessor of friar Roger the Provence. Based on the information provided by Raymond was composed de first Vita B. Rogerii de Provincia. The vita was included in the Chronica XXIV Generalium , and as such can also be found in the edition of that work in the Analecta Franciscana series. Lector at the Toulouse Studium. Teaching at Paris ca. Provincial of Aquitania in first in and again in He would have died soon after his second election. Sermo de S. But the issue has not yet been resolved. Sylvain Piron leaves both options open.

    Doucet, AFH , 27 , ; P. For the articles of Delormes and Doucet on the quodlibetals once ascribed to Raymond, see under Jacobus de Carceto. The Thirteenth Century , ed. Entered the order at the Troyes convent. Studied theology and received the licence of theology on 19 December After his degree work, Reginaldus served as provincial minister of the French province for fifteen years ca.

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    During his provincialate, he coped with conflicts between the conventuals and the observants a. Reginaldus was one of the founders of the Passion chapel at the Troyes convent. He inaugurated this chape; in After his death on 16 March , he was buried in the same chapel.

    Consistoriale 18 ff. Conventual friar from the Bologna province. Fulfilled his graduate studies in Paris, and afterwards taught theology at the studia of Bologna and Venice. In Raymond was appointed archbishop of Ragusa and suffragan bishop of Bologna. He took part in the Fifth Lateran Council. He died in Articulos de la concordia entre Raynaldus Gratianus de Cotignola, ministro general de su orden, y Marcialis Boulie, su vicario de los franciscanos de los observancia, acordados en Valladolid, el dia Responsio tractatui a quodam Observantino contra privilegiatum statum Min.

    Paris, III, 40ff. Paris, III, First Benedictine monk Eynsham and St. Mary in York. Later he returned to Oxford and joined the Franciscans. He composed astrological predictions of weather and eclipses. Digby 14th cent. Epistola de significatione Eclipsium Lunae []: Oxford, Bodl. Thorndike, A History of Magic English Friar. Member of the Norwich friary, and master of theology at Cambridge? Religious polemicist. London: Thomas Tegg, , 47; Norman P.

    The edition is available via Google Books. Belgian friar from Doornik Douai. Born ca. Became a well-respected Capucgin preacher in Mons, Doornik and elsewhere. Also known for a lengthy French poem La Magdeleine. La Magdeleine de F. German friar and member of the Tyrol province. Several times provincial definitor. Known for a work of the stigmata of Francis of Assisi. Rosetum seraphicum, fragrans flosculis, hoc est, figuris praecipuarum historiarum quae circa praeclarissimum mysterium impressionis sacrorum stigmatum seraphici Patris S.

    The edition is accessile via Google Books. The work would later also appear in a German translation. Remigius de Sancto Romulo Remigio di S. Ligurian friar and member of the Capuchin St. Ludovicus province. Poet and hagiographical writer. Vita seraphici patris nostri sancti Francisci in libros duodecim distributa carmen heroicum Avignon, Fulfilled a range of high administrative functions in his order province and beyond. Of English or possibly Irish descent. In any case born in Wiltshire, England.

    Moved to the Continent and took his profession in the Franciscan order in Was ordained priest at Douai four years later. He was elected provincial in , and became the confessor of the female Franciscan tertiaries of Nieuport, who suffered from damp living conditions, and eventually resettled. Between and , he lived in England, functioning as the domestic chaplain to Lord Arundell of Wardour.

    He returned to the continent to retire at the convent of Douai. Productive author. Manuale Tertii Ordinis S. Francisci Douai, A commentary on the Rule for Tertiaries with additional meditations, directed at religious women. Apologia pro Scoto Anglo Douai, Liturgical Discourse of the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass s. Richardus Brinkley Richard Brinkel, fourteenth century, d.

    Logician and theologian, who joined the franciscans at Oxford and was active there in the s and s. He is sometimes is mistaken for Walter Brinkley. Several of Brinkley's philosophical and theological ideas were known during the late fourteenth and fifteenth centuries in Paris and Prague also in connection, or rather direct opposition with the views of the mid-fourteenth-century Oxford philosopher Richard Billingham.

    Unknown whether Brinkley ever worked in Paris or Prague. Other works ascribed to him, such as his Distinctiones scholasticae , his Determinationes , and a treatise on metaphysics alluded to in his Summa as a work that he intended to write, have not yet been found. As a logician, he also was used as an authority, alongside of Walter Burley and Ockham. Bill Rompkey". Enter your mobile number or email address below and we'll send you a link to download the free Kindle App. Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - no Kindle device required.

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