Manual Die Darstellung der Atombombe im amerikanischen Film des Kalten Krieges (German Edition)

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Literatur in Wissenschaft und Unterricht 36 1 , 59 Elemental Germans. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Hochscherf, T. New York: Berghahn Books. Essen: Klartext Verlag. In Catherine Jolivette Ed. Farnham: Ashgate. Wiesbaden: Springer Spektrum. In Bernd Greiner, Tim B. Comparisons of public polls taken four times between and SWS Bildstatistiken show that the proportion of the population believing that there is a separate Austrian nation has increased from half to nearly three-quarters of the sample during this period.

Nevertheless, the dilemma of Austrian nationhood vs membership of a German nation is still under discussion in some circles Bruckmuller ,K. Erdmann The economic and political strength of, and dependence on, the 'big brother' Germany stands in contrast with a continuing cultural cringe in Austria Muhr ,b, Pollak , Ratholb, Schmid and HeiB As the author Georg Schmid 32 argues, Austrian German has become foreign through the acceptance of an evaluation from outside.

A manifestation of this is the pendulum swing between the planning of an autonomous national variety and an acceptance of German norms. According to Wodak-Leodolter and Dressier 30 ,'Standard High German', as described in Siebs and the Dudens, is 'not used in everyday speech at all and rarely in schools' in Vienna.

The German used by the highest ranking strata of Austrian society, whether in government, the public service, or the academic professions, is distinctively Austrian Muhr a. The notion of'stage German' has become somewhat antiquated in Germany. It was the original motivation of the Siebs standard but has little significance in Germany today. The radio news pronunciation, though still distinctively Austrian, bears some resemblance to that of German-speaking Switzerland, where this needs to be seen in relation to diglossia see 2.

In Austria, other programmes, such as the morning programme, talkback, talks and children's programmes, are in a more everyday sociolect of Austrian German. As there is no complete description of Austrian Standard German, its status is often confused through prejudice. Muhr , a demonstrates the effects of what he calls the 'schizophrenia of the Austrian. He shows that there is a tendency for Austrians to use but denigrate their own national variety Standard-nach-innen and to regard as the norm a variety that is neither normally used nor acceptable within Austria Standard-nach-aufien.

This is related to class and geographical factors see above and cf. Hans Moser and comes to the fore in the debate over the Austrian dictionary see 2. The result is frequent code-switching in the public domain Muhr This creates problems in the codification process. In a survey of language attitudes in Vienna, Moosmiiller and Dressier found positive attitudes to Austrian Standard German, which was described as soft and melodious, though some of the informants reacted negatively to unrealistically normative pronunciations.

A more extensive study of the attitudes of people from four states of Austria Moosmiiller revealed both positive and negative attitudes to the notion of 'Austrian German'. Evidence in favour of a 'linguistic cringe' see 2. German technology, tourism, imports and synchronized television for the entire Germanlanguage market as well as youth subculture have prompted the spread of GSG variants and uncertainty as to Austrian norms.

On the other hand, it is with Austrian Standard that the middle and upper middle classes identify Wodak-Leodolter and Dressier At all levels of language there are marked distinctions between local or regional Austrian dialects and Austrian Standard in both the capital city and the provinces. This was already observed by the Austrian writer Hugo von Hofmannsthal in Wert und Ehre der deutschen Sprache in He felt an absence of an intermediate variety for social contact between different segments of the population. Due to its belated overall industrialization, Austria still has a more pronounced class structure than Germany, and social class and educational background are indicated through the variety of Austrian German dialect or Standard used.


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As the lower sociolects of Austrian German are the ones most distant from GSG, the distinctiveness of Austrian German represents a conflict between national and social loyalty Hans Moser Vienna is the political and cultural centre and 3. Graz, Linz, Salzburg, Innsbruck, see e. Moosmuller , though there is some tension between the eastern and western varieties, and Standard German in Austria certainly varies regionally, as in Germany see Wolf Viennese influence is weakest in Vorarlberg, which, linguistically and culturally, has much in common with neighbouring areas of Switzerland, and has been making bids for increased political autonomy.

Because of longstanding cultural links dating back to the AustroHungarian Empire, ASG is enjoying considerable currency in the neighbouring Central European countries, such as Hungary, Slovenia and Slovakia. This is partly due to cognate vocabulary. The motivation to use ASG words is decreased because North Germans often do not understand them or consider them non-standard. Austrian variants are mentioned in the German pronunciation handbooks, Siebs and Duden-Ausspracheworterbuch, in the Duden-Grammatik, and in the German dictionaries such as Wahrig, DudenUniversalworterbuch, and Klappenbach and Steinitz.

There is an Osterreischisches Beiblatt of Siebs which Pollak demonstrates to be inadequate in his argument for a codification of ASG pronunciation. Now that the Duden-Ausspracheworterbuch has accepted a broader set of pronunciation options, some characteristically Austrian norms especially those rules also applied in parts of Germany have been included, something that was not the case prior to It is the official listing of the lexicon of.

Standard German in Austria, with some treatment of grammar, published under the auspices of the Ministry of Education and the Arts. In contrast to earlier editions which attempted to provide an inventory of standard 'common German language', the 35th edition exercised a solidarizing and separatist function Dressier and Wodak a , accentuating the distinctiveness of Austrian Standard German in a climate of increased national consciousness and progressive social reform. At least one third of the items in this edition had not appeared in previous editions.

Some were neologisms but most were characteristically Austrian words, among them dialect expressions employed in Austrian literature written in Standard German. They were marked 'tnda mundartlich, dialectal ot'ldscW landschaftlich, regional. Samstag, also GSG except in the North. The dictionary also reflected the flexibility in gender usage in ASG see below, 2.

Duden Vol. The 36th edition of the OWB retreated from some of these reforms, largely in response to criticisms of the controversial previous edition from some linguists and lay people. This may also be symptomatic of a general return to conservatism and regionalism in Austria. It was claimed variously that standards had been lowered by the acceptance of non-standard forms and a disregard for stylistic levels, that the international unity of the German language was being damaged Wiesinger a , that there was a 'reactionary' overstating of the Austrian element Reiffenstein , and that the dictionary was Vienna-centric and oblivious to usage in the western part ofAustria Wiesinger a, b, b, Dressier and Wodak a.

Some of these points were also made in letters to the editor of newspapers, see Clyne Many of the evaluations also contained praise for some aspects of the initiatives of the dictionary which gave ASG its due place. Any suggestions received are taken into account by the dictionary editors Fussy Thus, for instance, Aprikose, Quark cottage 5 The earlier term for such items would have been 'reichsdeutsch' Imperial German , which was no longer appropriate.

See e. Wiesinger b, Wolf The stylistic level received more attention, with some Austrian items now being designated 'Ugs' umgangssprachlich, colloquial. However, Pollak levels criticism at the tendency in the 36th Edition to relegate items to dialect or colloquial too quickly. The problem is where to establish the threshold of Standard German Pollak Some multiple gender assignments e. In the case of Meter, reinstated in The addition of 'w wienerisch , together with the adoption of Vorarlberg items marked V was intended to appease the western Austrians.

Grammatical rules now followed the more conservative pattern statt and wegen with the dative, and the Austrian contraction of aujdem to am being described as 'ugs' without detracting from the essentials of ASG grammar, such as the use of sein as the only auxiliary for liegen, sitzen and stehen, which Duden lists as regional South German.

The 37th edition takes a position between the 35th and the 36th, being more prescriptive than the former and less so than the latter. There is again a declaration of national distinctiveness in its self-description: Ein Worterbuch der deutschen Standardsprache in ihrer osterreichischen Auspragung A dictionary of the German standard language in its Austrian expression It is again an inciter of language reform, but in a more subtle way than the 35th edition. The distinction between national and regional differences is clarified.

Regional variants are not only indicated but marked very precisely e. East Styrian, East Tyrolean. In a sample of entries, Rogerson found that 78 changes had been made in the entries between the 36th and 37th editions, largely due to markings, such as ugs or idsch. Only The 37th edition represents a more balanced, theoretically well founded but progressive, account of the Austrian German norms. Its direction is now probably irreversible. The 38th edition, to appear during , will be greatly expanded with a total of 60, items.

In all three cases, the diphthongal character is slight and the second element lower than in GSG Wodak-Leodolter and Dressier The distinction between voiced and voiceless consonants is subject to assimilation rules, e. Initial [st] corresponds to GSG [Jt] in loanwords, e. Stil, Strategie. Initial [k] corresponds to GSG [c] in loanwords, e. Chemie, China. Evangelium, November, Vizeprdsident. Voiceless initial [s], as in [sausn] sausen. There is no glottal stop [? Stylistic variation takes place between final [ik] and [iq] in words spelt -ig, e.

The sequence [rjk] is found in words such as [arjkst] Angst, [laqksam] langsam Wodak-Leodolter and Dressier The short vowel in Kucken is reflected in the spelling, which 6. There is a long vowel, e. Some words e. Kaffee and Motor are stressed on the final syllable not the initial one as in GSG.

Others e. GSG stress on final syllable. On the other hand, some adjectives are stressed on the final syllable in ASG whereas the stress occurs on the first syllable in GSG, e. Many of the distinctive words in ASG reflect the separate cultural and political development of Austria. They include words in the following fields: Food e. Jause morning and afternoon tea, GSG Kaffee. Institutions e. The months e. Transferred from neighbouring languages, e. Italian, Slovenian. Purism and integration of lexical transfers were never as marked in Austria as in Germany Fenske Another speciality of Austrian Standard German is the preposition auf used with vergessen cf.

GSG direct object. Kaffee retains its stress on the final syllable in contrast to GSG, where the stress has transferred to the initial syllable. Some words are umlauted in ASG, e. Mochte from mogen 'to like' is employed for'would' GSG wurde. The letter j is [je:], not [jot] as in Germany. ASG ['ko:pJ3] copy has been replaced by GSG [ko'pi:] by some younger people for whom the word relates only to photocopying and not to carbon copies cf.

Wiesinger Some morphemes are particularly productive in word formation in ASG, e. Rizzo-Baur , Wiesinger The distinctively Austrian word Wissenschafter academic is used in free variation with Wissenschafiler. Hans Moser 26 suggests that the former may have arisen in Austria because the -ler is sometimes associated there with words expressing social inferiority. Kragen and Wagen take a " plural cf.

GSG zero plural. Austrian German tends to prefer the weak forms of verbs such as senden to send and wenden to turn sendete, gesendet; wendete, gewendet. Past participles of diirfen, konnen and mogen are not used as main verbs but replaced by the infinitive, e. Spoken Austrian Standard as well as Austrian dialects like many German ones generally lack a preterite simple past and pluperfect. They are replaced by the perfect. The preterite is sometimes used in Austrian Standard by some people wishing to shift to a higher register stylistic level of language chosen according to 'what is actually taking place, who is taking part, and what part the language is playing' Halliday 31 , regardless of its applicability according to German grammatical rules of aspect.

For instance, single events in the past are therefore sometimes expressed in the preterite instead of the perfect Kufner The half-heartedly conducted referendum in which the Serbian government had allowed the people to vote. Die Presse, 14 October , p. Ich bin iiberzeugt, daB wir bis dahin die Vermogensaufteilung abgeschlossen haben werden.

I am convinced that by then we will have completed the distribution of assets. Die Presse 14 October , p. Denn wenn das sein hatte konnen, hatte er es ganz betrieben. For if that had been the case, he would have carried it out completely. Osterreichbericht 95,, p. Robert Lichel ist viel zu intelligent, nicht auch zu wissen, daB er das fruher oder spater zugeben wird mtissen. Robert Lichel is far too intelligent not to know that he would have to admit this sooner or later. Stubkjaer , who cites numerous examples from ASG, points out that this construction brings the main verb closer to the connected nominal than is the case in GSG.

It would appear from the above section that the attitudes to Austrian Standard German have fluctuated with the swing of the political pendulum as Austriafindsits place in the new world order. Pollak's closing sentence points the way to a recognition of both unity and diversity: Erst mit dem Bekenntnis zum osterreichischen Deutsch werden wir sprachlich zu vollwertigen Mitgliedern der deutschen Kommunikationsgemeinschaft.

Only with a commitment to Austrian German will we become linguistically full members of the German communication community. The position of Swiss Standard German can be seen only in contrast with that of the 'national dialect' Swiss German Schwyzertutsch , which has, in most aspects of its structure, remained more conservative than Swiss Standard German.

Swiss German could be developed into an independent language. One of the reasons why it is not regarded as a language Kloss terms it an 'Ausbaudialekf is that it exists only in the form of different local and regional varieties. It is, as it were, a pluricentric national dialect. Apart from some recommendations on spelling in Swiss German Dieth , no standardization has taken place.

In addition, the Swiss-Germans see themselves as part of the German literary and cultural tradition and do not wish to break with this Sieber and Sitta , von Polenz Communication at the inter-regional level is based on slightly adapting. Zurich, Basel, Bern German to that of your speech partner, often by taking over lexemes and other features from Swiss Standard German. Dialect mixture in individuals results from internal mobility Christen In contrast to Germans and Austrians, German-speaking Swiss have no intermediate variety between dialect and Standard comparable with Umgangssprache see 4.

Urban dialects are far more prestigious than rural ones. Wolfsberger has shown that, owing to geographical mobility and the effects of the media, there is some levelling-out of dialects, especially in the direction of the standard language. This is particularly so among the younger and the more geographically mobile. The Swiss identify basically as citizens of a particular local or regional entity e. Zurich, Interlaken, St Gallen. Within this region or locality in the German-language part, the dialect is spoken as the native language and sole language of informal discourse by all classes and sections of society, i.

Keller , Ris , Kropf It is the primary linguistic marker of identity, for, as Watts 92 points out, the Swiss have a mistrust of central authority and central concentration of power. Competence in Swiss Standard German and not dialect identifies people socially Ris ,57 , while dialect indicates their regional cantonal origins, and this diglossia identifies them as Swiss. A uniform national dialect might, among other things, destroy the social unity guaranteed by the local and regional dialect. Standard German is primarily the written language, as its Swiss name Schriftdeutsch suggests.

The norms are better defined and more consciously observed in this Swiss variety of Standard German than in dialects R. Many German-speaking Swiss resent Standard German because of difficulties encountered with it at school or because it is the symbol of anxiety, frustration and suppression within a very prescriptive approach at school Schlapfer, Gutzweiler and Schmid , Sieber and Sitta , There being no intermediate variety, Standard German is often rather stilted in style.

It has been claimed frequently e. This is not simply a symbolic rejection, for Swiss-Germans have an inferiority complex about their Standard German Albrecht and Mathis a. However, young Swiss do have the opportunity of being exposed to it from an early age through German TV Watts , Sieber and Sitta and are able to mimic it well Hacki Buhofer and Burger Standard German is employed in the National Parliament along with French and Italian ,9 in secondary and tertiary education, radio and television, formal church services liturgy and sermons , the press, worldwide fiction literature the most important contemporary Swiss exponents of which are Frisch and Durrenmatt and non-fiction literature.

Whether a variety is used for the latter function is regarded by Kloss as a litmus test as to whether the variety is now a language in its own right. Dialect is used in some cantonal parliaments, early primary education and somefictionliterature. Further uses of dialect are in weddings and informal evening church services, secondary and tertiary education explanations, colloquia, working groups, practical classes, non-academic school subjects , the military less formal situations , advertising, and even some formal speeches Schwarzenbach , Ris ,Meili ,L6ffler , Sieber and Sitta , In other words, dialect is making inroads into informal speech informal domains, and even into formal speech, such as addresses given on the National Day, which are closely linked with national identity Schlapfer, Gutzweiler and Schmid As a result, new words are transferred from Standard German and integrated into dialect, e.

Raumfahrt space travel becomes Rumfort, and Marktforschung market research becomes Marktforschig e. It appears that diglossia based on domains is no longer an appropriate means of depicting the relation between Standard and dialect in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. The division is more between speaking mode, which is unmarked and in dialect, and reading mode, which is marked and in Standard. The 'speaking mode' expresses spontaneity, intimacy and interaction; the 'reading mode' expresses authority, distance and formality.

Sieber and Sitta , designate this 'medial diglossia', i. By way of illustration, news broadcasts are in Standard German on national radio 9. By reading the news in Standard German, broadcasters stress that they are not taking responsibility for the content. The name of the editor, not that of the news-reader as in English-speaking countries is given. On many local stations, the Standard German news is followed by the weather report in dialect. This is presented in a more casual way, and the tempo is faster. Most announcements on railway stations are in Standard; this is the variety in which tram stops are called out by the Zurich tram driver.

Thus, the 'reading mode' is associated with truth value as well as authoritativeness, with the 'speaking mode' being a narrative one. In addition, 'dialect' is starting to move into H see 1. These are seen to be part of interaction. The dialect is the vehicle of personal identity and in-group communication. Spoken Standard German is imparted at school to reinforce the written Standard of essay work Sieber and Sitta Some writers lament the large amount of dialect spoken in class, which, it is claimed, is resulting in lower Standard German competence and the danger of'Hollandization' i.

News and news-like programmes are in Standard German. Swiss German is not usually employed in translations from foreign languages. Quotations are repeated in the variety in which they were heard or read. Swiss German does not occur in written form on TV It is used in informal situations or where the moderator comments as well as conveys information.

Interviews with Swiss-Germans are in dialect. There is no codeswitching between interlocutors or within the same speaker. Swiss German is used exclusively in local content. On the basis of an analysis of Swiss TV commercials, Lee establishes that Standard voices are used to express elegance, sophistication, seriousness and technology.

Dialect voices are employed to denote identity, humour, informality, homeliness and intimacy. German- Swiss schools are charged with the responsibility of teaching oral and written Standard. However, pupils can effect a code-switch to Standard in class, something that teachers do not consider a breach of rules Kropf A sample of nearly 34, army recruits, all males aged about twenty, and almost 1, women of the same age and range of backgrounds were surveyed by Schlapfer, Gutzweiler and Schmid This means that the school has become a Standard German 'relic area'.

While Standard German was regarded as more objective, precise and exalted. Opposition to increased use of dialects comes from French speakers and from the cultural elite of the German speakers, who feel that it is undermining the proficiency level in Standard German Schlapfer, Gutzweiler and Schmid Dialect is a 'protection' from the 'outside world' and the identity marker to distinguish German-speaking Swiss from their powerful neighbours, the Germans Kropf The Swiss vote against entry into the European Economic Region in December due to German-Swiss opposition is a major reflection of this desire for insulation.

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Another manifestation of isolationism is a 24million-franc cut in October in the funding of Pro Helvetia, the Swiss cultural body corresponding to the Goethe Institute. The non-German-speaking Swiss, especially the French speakers, resent the increased use of Swiss-German dialects. They feel excluded from communication by the largest group even though they learn its Standard language at school Frei , Watts , , Sieber and Sitta , Ludi In the survey of year-olds mentioned above Schlapfer, Gutzweiler and Schmid , Diirmuller English emerged as the preferred language to learn at school, French and German both being unpopular.

But note that the methodology of this study has been criticized by Watts and Andres At present, French is the more usual language of inter-cultural communication between German and French speakers and between French and Italian speakers, while Standard German is employed between German and Italian speakers see also Chini In the federal public service, to an increasing extent the inter-ethnic communication mode is for each person to speak their own language Hauck While English is the 'neutral language', it is not yet favoured as the official language of Switzerland.

However, about one-third of the informants regard this development as 'conceivable' Diirmuller Stevenson attributes these problems not only to the dynamic nature of Swiss multilingualism but also to 'Helevetic malaise' - 'a growing sense of self-doubt, dissatisfaction with the status quo acccompanying a shift of attention from solidarity against the outside world to internal divisions' p. Keller points out that lexical pairing between Standard German and dialect leads to convergence, e.

The same process has led to grammatical confusion and simplification, e. As there is a discontinuum i. The independent position of Swiss Standard German has been strengthened by Swiss neutrality and the recent German past. But while there are norms for Swiss Standard German, the Swiss generally experience a feeling of inferiority as to their proficiency in it Boesch Boesch et al. The Swiss follow the Duden as the norm of the written language Miiller-Marzohl Most of the specifically Swiss items included are transfers from French or words from the culinary or institutional domains.

There is also a Swiss Schulerduden for late primary and early secondary classes, which follows the norms of written Swiss Standard German see Schlapfer and a Swiss dictionary for primary schools Reichert , which is drawn from the lexicon of Swiss Standard German. Short-vowel forms have been accepted in the edition of the authoritative Duden-Ausspracheworterbuch. Couplet, Budget Keller Moulton points out that Swiss Standard German never uses a glottal stop and that final consonants may be voiced e.

See also Meyer Chemie, China, Chronik. As in other German-language countries, there is regional variation in Swiss Standard German pronunciation Siebenhaar Nachtessen dinner , aper snow-free , Zntini morning tea at about 9. Words bearing a meaning different to that in other national varieties, e. Word-formation devices employed differently in SSG than in other varieties, e. Specifically Swiss gender assignment in some cases of transference from French, closer to the source language , e. Incidentally, das Mami contrasts with der Papi, e.

Ob is still used for oberhalb above , which is archaic in other standard varieties, as are Mietzins rent , Wittfrau widow , einhellig anonymous , hierorts here and hinfort in future Russ Redacteur editor , transferred from French, is integrated as Redaktor. The fi has been generally replaced by ss. Liegen to lie , sitzen to sit , stehen to stand , hocken to crouch and kauern to squat are employed resultatively with an adverbial adjunct, e.

Liegen, setzen, and stehen usually take sein as an auxiliary although they are sometimes used with haben. Hocken always forms its perfect with sein Meyer An important aspect of Swiss Standard German is the large component of transfers from another national language, French. The Germanlanguage part of Switzerland has historically not imposed its 'Germanness' on anyone else, the way Prussia Germany and Austria did on their nonGerman colonial populations.

The German loan-creations and loantranslations employed in Germany in place of French transfers Anschrift for Adresse, Bahnsteig for Perron , have, for the Swiss, an unpleasantly 'unSwiss' Prussian? A few examples of French transfers: Bahnhofbujfet station restaurant , Camion truck , Glace ice cream , Occasion bargain, sale , Petition petition ,prdsidieren to chair , Retourbillet return ticket , Velo bicycle ;geht dir das?

As far as I am aware, no study of the diglossic situation in Liechtenstein has as yet been undertaken. It is, on the whole, similar to that in the German-speaking parts of Switzerland. Standard German in Liechtenstein has not been codified. However, it is used more than Swiss Standard German. Also there is a large degree of similarity and some convergence, Banzer between the Liechtenstein dialects, and the capital, Vaduz, houses the headquarters of many foreign businesses run by Standard German speakers, with whom a Standard German similar to that of Switzerland is spoken. In December there were 1, Germans and 2, Austrians living in Liechtenstein on residence permits Roland Biichel, personal communication.

The language of administration is Standard German. It is the official language of the court, though dialect is sometimes employed in simple cases where both parties are Liechtensteiners. Standard is also generally used in the Landtag Parliament. Dialect is also permitted but is used by few parliamentarians. While the liturgical part of church services is in Standard, sermons tend to be preached in dialect Roland Biichel, Presse- und Informationsamtsleiter, personal communication, 27 July In schools, the dialect is used as a medium of instruction officially only in the first weeks of Grade 1 sixyear-olds.

Its use is permitted in class where the pupils are experiencing difficulties in comprehension or expression Lehrplan der Realschule, , cited in G. The book is concluded with a glossary of technical terms, biographical sketches of known and unknown dramatis personae, as well as a list of references. The author outlines lively sketches of people that were astronomically active in Altona, Kiel and its surroundings over a time interval of years.

He also has evaluated private documents and has interviewed surviving witnesses of the s and s. He has located remote sources: for example, the son of the founder of the Astronomische Nachrichten, Richard Schumacher, served for some years as an assistant at the Chilean National Observatory, and had married Marie Bulling, a girl of German descent. From her "meagre diary entries" of that time published in Valparaiso in , the author suspects a "convenience marriage''. Nevertheless, unreliable sources can provide a false picture: the interviewed custodian notes that the wife of the last official observatory director, Hans Oswald Rosenberg, was "Verena Borchardt, a Jewess from St.

Petersburg'' p. This is more than incorrect. The family lived for some years in Moscow not St. In , his daughter Helene was born there - who later married the Kiel astronomer Wirtz. In , the Borchardt family moved to Berlin, where the father became a banker, and where Verena was born. On page too, Wirtz' capricious political views are quoted: "The day when the French troops entered Strasbourg was the happiest one in my life'', for which Theiss' paper of is quoted, and it is stated "source not given''. Now, Theiss uses a study of Duerbeck and Seitter , where the precise reference in the Kiel Acta is given.

Another series of peculiar statements refer to the Astronomische Nachrichten p. Totally fabricated is the author's statement that the journal is now published by "the Astronomical Computing Centre [sic] in Heidelberg''. In spite of these slightly critical notes on some irrelevant details, I can wholeheartedly recommend this book: it is an indispensable source of information for anyone who is interested in the history of astronomy in German-speaking lands in the 19th and the first half of the 20th century.

Internationale Schulreformtendenzen und das Problem der Lehrerausbildung. The main theme of this article is that the socio-economic and educational changes which have occurred in industrialized countries in the past 20 to 25 years necessitate a thorough reform of the present system of teacher education. The first group of such changes includes the information explosion, greater occupational mobility, the growing significance and increasing role of the sciences, the development of the mass media, higher educational aspirations, technical development, the acceleration of the psycho-physical development of children and youth, and the injurious effects of the uncontrolled development of the constantly changing civilisation deterioration of the human environment, diseases caused by the effects of civilisation, etc.

In the face of these changes, teachers must not remain indifferent and teacher education systems have to take them into account. Within the second group of changes influencing the content and methods of teacher education, the most important is the generalisation of education at the pre-school, primary and secondary school levels and also at the university level. As a result, education in many types of school and at ever higher levels has lost the elitist character it still had, not so long ago, and has become a mass activity.

This has considerably affected teachers' work and, necessarily, also the work of the teacher education systems. This must also be reflected in teacher education. In order to adapt the teacher education systems to the requirements of the changing society, a reform of the goals, contents and methods of the system will have to be prepared and implemented as a prerequisite and starting point for a global reform of the entire education system.

The factsheet describes the Uniform National Discharge Standards and explains what vessels are regulated and how the rulemaking will impact states. It details the batch and phase approach to rulemaking and lists the first batch of vessel discharges. The EPA and Department of Defense used a batch rulemaking process for establishing the discharge standards for vessels of the Armed Forces. They identified and evaluated the discharges and determined which require marine pollution control devices.

Synonymie und Interlinguistik Synonymy and Interlinguistics. Discusses the relationship between traditional synonym theory and two perspectives of interlinguistics: contrastive lexical analysis and languages in contact research. The goal and methods of each are described briefly, and a new synonym conceptualization is proposed that better fits synchronic dynamics than the traditional theory. Examples from…. Verhalten und Neurobiologie von stimmbegabten Insekten. Crickets, tettigoniids bush crickets or long-horned grasshoppers and acridids short-horned grasshoppers are well-suited animals to study acoustically mediated behavior and to search for the underlying sensory, nervous, and effector mechanisms.

Several behavioral tactics are described which improve reproductive success, serve to avoid predators such as bats, or have been developed for defence against parasitic insects. Phonotactic orientation of female crickets toward the calling male was chosen, since for this behavior the underlying sensory and nervous mechanisms have been intensively studied.

Song recognition was found to be based on one critical parameter of the song, the syllable period, and the females show a bandpass behavior for which a correlate exists in local brain neurons. Sound orientation is based on a pressure gradient mechanism in each ear, and it needs a binaural intensity comparison within the central nervous system.

The papers from a symposium held at the Fern Universitat included in this collection focus on distance education in theory and practice. Contributions are written in English or in German, with summaries available for each in the language not used for the paper concerned. Contributions are: 1 "Distance Education as Communication: The….

Semantik und Semantisierung Semantics and Semanticizing. Argues against the thesis that exact translation is impossible, because languages reflect different world-views or different cognitive structures de Saussure, Humboldt, Whorf, Weisgerber. The possibility of underlying universals Lenneberg, Heger must be considered and discussed in the field of language teacing. Text is in German. Renal denervation: unde venis et quo vadis? Renal denervation is a minimally invasive, catheter-based option for the treatment of refractory hypertension.

Indications and contraindications for renal denervation have been defined in an interdisciplinary manner. The efficacy and safety of the procedure were evaluated. These results were not confirmed in the first randomized controlled trial with a non-significantly superior blood pressure reduction of The efficacy and long-term effects of renal denervation need to be re-evaluated in light of the HTN3 study results. To date, renal denervation should not be performed outside of clinical trials.

Future trials should also assess if renal denervation can be performed with sufficient safety and efficacy in patients with hypertension-associated diseases. The use of renal denervation as an alternative therapy e. The indication for renal denervation should be assessed in an interdisciplinary fashion and according to current guidelines with a special focus on ruling out secondary causes for arterial hypertension.

Renal denervation leads to a significant decrease in office blood pressure; however, the impact on hour blood pressure measurements remains unclear. In the first randomized controlled trial on renal denervation with a control group undergoing a sham procedure, blood pressure reduction failed to reach the anticipated level of superiority over best medical treatment. Periprocedural complications are rare, but long-term safety can currently not be appraised due to the limited data available. Zur Biosynthese von Phenylalanin und Tyrosin.

With the discovery of arogenic acid two new pathways for the biosynthesis of phenylalanine and tyrosine have been revealed. The occurrence of two, three, or four pathways for the biosynthesis of phenylalanine and tyrosine in microorganisms and plants may be a useful tool for taxonomic classifications. Investigations on enterobacteriaceae, pseudomonads, flavobacteria, streptomycetes, archaebacteria, and on Sphaerotilus, Trichococcus and Leptothrix species from bulking sludge are described. The possible role of arogenate in the evolution of the pathways for tyrosine and phenylalanine biosynthesis is discussed.

Coulometrische titration von hypochloriten und chloraten. Hypochlorite was determined by direct coulometric titration with iron II in an acetate buffered solution. Chlorate was titrated with titanium III in 2M hydrochloric acid. Amperometric indication with one and two electrodes, respectively, was used. Mixtures of hypochlorites and chlorates, e. Critical discussion on the "observed" water balances of five sub-basins in the Everest region.

The hydrometeorological components of five Dudh Koshi River sub-basins on the Nepalese side of the Mount Everest have been monitored during four hydrological years , with altitudes ranging from m to Everest top, areas between 4. This data set is completed with glacier mass balance observations. The analysis of the observed data and the resulting water balances show large uncertainties of different types: aleatory, epistemic or semantic, following the classification proposed by Beven The discussion is illustrated using results from two modeling approaches, physical ISBA, Noilhan and Planton, and conceptual J, Krause, , as well as large scale glacier mass balances obtained by the way of a recent remote sensing processing method.

References: Beven, K. Facets of uncertainty: epistemic uncertainty, non-stationarity, likelihood, hypothesis testing, and communication. Hydrological Sciences Journal 61, Noilhan, J. A single parametrization of land surface processes for meteorological models. Monthly Weather Review Sexuality and reproductive behaviour of Cereus pedunculatus Pennant and several forms subspecies of Actinia equina L. At the stage of 96 septae C. The latter appeared simultaneously in the gastrocoele.

Adolescent A. Following a sterile period, oocytes and young individuals of different age groups were present almost throughout the whole year in adult anemones. Samples of the larviparous A. Spontaneous longitudinal fission was occasionally observed in adult A. This article expounds the theory that the failure of school is due to the incompatibility of the educational goals of school and traditional upbringing in Africa. The thesis is put forward by adherents of the psychoanalytical model of child development and seeks to emphasize the discrepancies between the childhood where children are not frustrated and where their needs are cared for and the school education which represses the drives and its socialization of children.

Finding a number of anthropological studies are discussed and reinterpretations of the ethno-psychoanalytical materials attempted. Neither the evaluation of childhood in Africa nor the theory that with school come wholly new expectations of behaviour e. In conclusion, other explanations for the difficulties encountered by school in Africa are offered.

Wer kann, darf und soll bleiben?. Lokale Re-Konfigurationen im Fluchtmigrations- und Integrationsdiskurs. The current discourse on a limitation of immigration is characterized by social and symbolic boundaries, that allow some statements about the un desirability of certain immigrants and asylum seekers. The article uses the example of the city of Altena to show how, based on strategic approaches to urban development, refugee migration and its impacts are re interpreted at the local level. This book collects about 15 papers most of them by one single author on Einstein and the history of general relativity GR and the foundations of relativistic cosmology.

The matter not only deals with Einstein and his times, but also with pre-GR ideas, and with the interplay of Einstein and his colleagues opposing as well as supporting personalities. As the title indicates, all papers are written in German, but they include comprehensive Abstracts both in German and English. The book is illustrated with quite a number classical - but also some far more original though not less beautiful - photographs and facsimiles of documents. The book is edited very well, though the style of references is not quite homogeneous.

There is no Index. Hentschel covers Einstein's argumentation for the existence of graviational redshift, and the initial search for empirical support. The error analysis of observational evidence supporting relativistic light deflection is discussed in a paper by P. In particular, H. Duerbeck and P. Flin - in their description of the life and work of Silberstein, who was quite sceptic on the significance of the observational verifications a la Eddington - include the transcription of two most revealing letters by Silberstein to Sommerfeld and to Einstein In the first letter, Silberstein clearly shows his scientific maturity and integrity by scrutinising the observational evidence supporting light deflection, presented at a joint meeting of the Royal Society and the Royal Astronomical Society.

The second letter, which is more a personal letter, includes lots of political references and connotations. Some of Einstein's political views are also revealed by D. Herrmann on the basis of his own correspondence with E. Straus, a collaborator of Einstein's. In a consequent paper, S. Grundmann gives remarks on Herrmann's contribution and illustrates Einstein's attitude towards Marx, Engels, Lenin and Stalin. Schemmel discusses Schwarzschild's cosmological speculations, and wonders why some people do immediately grasp the meaning and consequence of newly proposed doctrines, whereas the bulk of the contemporaneous scientists respond in a rather low profile.

Jung reviews Einstein's contribution to cosmology, leading to the Friedmann-Einstein and Einstein-de Sitter universes with a detailed Appendix on the Friedmann-Lemaitre cosmology , and also presents the cosmological work of Selety, and his correspondence with Einstein. In a subsequent paper, H. Schmidt comments on Einstein's criticism on de Sitter's solution of the Einstein field equations.

Controversies with Einstein are elaborated by G. Singer on Friedmann and by K. Roessler on Lemaitre. Renn and T. Sauer discuss Mandl's role in the publication history of Einstein's papers, notably Einstein's short paper on gravitational lensing. Finally, the book concludes with a contribution by D. Herrmann about the relationship between Einstein and Archenhold Observatory where Einstein gave his first Berlin popular lecture in , the transcription of H.

Treder's public address at the Einstein memorial plaque, and an inventory list of about 50 Einstein memorabilia - monuments, busts, plaques - compiled by W. This book is based on ideas approached in a historical context from the individual perspective of the authors. It is a real treasure trove of information and basic references on the history of GR, and it also covers quite some grounds with mathematical equations. The hydrogeochemistry of the Cretaceous Emscher Fm.

Beneath a weathered zone, unweathered rocks containing pyrite were found. Groundwater data from the Emscher Fm. The spatial distribution depends on the presence of Quaternary cover sediments. The main mobilization mechanism of both contaminants appears to be pH-triggered desorption from mineral surfaces. Wer kann, darf und soll bleiben? Genetic toxicity assessment: employing the best science for human safety evaluation part IV: Recommendation of a working group of the Gesellschaft fuer Umwelt -Mutationsforschung GUM for a simple and straightforward approach to genotoxicity testing.

Based on new scientific developments and experience of the regulation of chemical compounds, a working group of the Gesellschaft fuer Umweltmutationsforschung GUM , a German-speaking section of the European Environmental Mutagen Society, proposes a simple and straightforward approach to genotoxicity testing.

This strategy is divided into basic testing stage I and follow-up testing stage II. Stage I consists of a bacterial gene mutation test plus an in vitro micronucleus test, therewith covering all mutagenicity endpoints. Stage II testing is in general required only if relevant positive results occur in stage I testing and will usually be in vivo.

However, an isolated positive bacterial gene mutation test in stage I can be followed up with a gene mutation assay in mammalian cells. If this assay turns out negative and there are no compound-specific reasons for concern, in vivo follow-up testing may not be required. In those cases where in vivo testing is indicated, a single study combining the analysis of micronuclei in bone marrow with the comet assay in appropriately selected tissues is suggested. Negative results for both end points in relevant tissues will generally provide sufficient evidence to conclude that the test compound is nongenotoxic in vivo.

In the absence of additional data, such compounds will have to be assumed to be potential genotoxic carcinogens and potential germ cell mutagens. Urbanisation processes increase land-use conflicts and ecosystem destruction globally. Especially in China, a country with an outstanding urbanization rate, city governments are challenged by environmental and health problems. Urban green spaces - subsequently defined as urban biodiversity and ecosystem services - can minimize numerous environmental risks and at the same time contribute to the citizens' well-being and quality of life. In this highly relevant field of nature conservation, geographical perspectives are required - in science, politics, policy, planning and practice.

Reconstruction of multistage massive rock slope failure: Polymethodical approach in Lake Oeschinen CH. Lateglacial and Holocene rock-slope failures occur often as multistage failures where paraglacial adjustment and stress adaptation are hypothesised to control stages of detachment. However, we have only limited datasets to reconstruct detailed stages of large multistage rock-slope failures, and still aim at improving our models in terms of geohazard assessment. Here we use lake sediments, well-established for paleoclimate and paleoseismological reconstruction, with a focus on the reconstruction of rock-slope failures.

The lake sediments have been analysed using sediment-core analysis, radiocarbon dating and seismic-to-core and core-to-core correlations, and these were linked to historical and meteorological records. Several events detached from the same area potentially initiated by prehistoric earthquakes Monecke et al.

The data imply unexpected short recurrence rates that can be related to certain detachment scarps and also help to understand the generation of a historical lake-outburst flood. Here we show how polymethodical analysis of lake sediments can help to decipher massive multistage rock-slope failure. References Monecke, K. Earthquake-induced deformation structures in lake deposits: A Late Pleistocene to Holocene paleoseismic record for Central Switzerland. Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae, 99 3 , Tinner, W.

Bio-based production of organic acids with Corynebacterium glutamicum. The shortage of oil resources, the steadily rising oil prices and the impact of its use on the environment evokes an increasing political, industrial and technical interest for development of safe and efficient processes for the production of chemicals from renewable biomass. Thus, microbial fermentation of renewable feedstocks found its way in white biotechnology, complementing more and more traditional crude oil-based chemical processes. Rational strain design of appropriate microorganisms has become possible due to steadily increasing knowledge on metabolism and pathway regulation of industrially relevant organisms and, aside from process engineering and optimization, has an outstanding impact on improving the performance of such hosts.

Corynebacterium glutamicum is well known as workhorse for the industrial production of numerous amino acids. However, recent studies also explored the usefulness of this organism for the production of several organic acids and great efforts have been made for improvement of the performance. This review summarizes the current knowledge and recent achievements on metabolic engineering approaches to tailor C.

We focus here on the fermentative production of pyruvate, l-and d-lactate, 2-ketoisovalerate, 2-ketoglutarate, and succinate. These organic acids represent a class of compounds with manifold application ranges, e. The special committee for "Environmental Medicine" established by the Federal Association of Doctors in the German Public Health Service presents its paper entitled "Environmental Medicine in the Public Health Service--A Social Responsibility and its Consequences: Propositions with regard to the situation, aims, strategies, and opportunities for action". The paper includes core ideas and responsibilities in the public health service.

It aims at providing a number of guidelines for implementing "Environment and Health" " Umwelt und Gesundheit" , an action programme by the Federal Ministry of Environmental Protection and the Ministry of Health, as well as "Health 21" "Gesundheit 21" , the framework concept "Health for all" for the WHO's European Region. The paper also aims at initiating and facilitating steps for joint action by the Public Health Service. These theses were passed on to Mrs.

Typical responsibilities include environmental hygiene and environment-related medical services which have increased in importance. The range of responsibilities and its current political importance are a result of environment-related public health risks, the social situation of the population, also with regard to health issues, and the scope of responsibilities and competencies by doctors and staff in the public health departments. With the people's demands for health, quality of life and life expectancy, this need for action increases.

In this paper, judicial, professional, and personal consequence are presented which arise as public health authorities assume these responsibilities. Der Rohingya - Konflikt:. Genese, aktuelle Situation und geopolitische Aspekte. The Rohingya in Myanmar are often described as the most persecuted minority in the world.

In the former Burma, the Rohingya are considered illegal immigrants and have been denied citizenship for decades. Since the end of August , more than , Rohingya from Rakhine State have fled to neighboring Bangladesh. While the public usually discusses the ethnic-religious and humanitarian causes and effects of the conflict, the political, economic and geopolitical interests of directly and indirectly involved actors also play a role.

The contribution at hand argues that migration, especially of refugees, has received growing recognition in public and academic debates in the past few years. It traces the reciprocal references to a highly dynamic research subject within migration scholarship, public discourse, and politics. It thereby highlights the value and risks of a space-related perspective.

In addition to an outline of established and newly emerging research fields within geographic migration research, the contribution opens the debate on practical implications of the addressed topical challenges within the field. Physik gestern und heute: Visualisierung mit der Schlierenmethode. Cornularia cornucopiae is a colonial coral whose polyps arise singly from stolons. In contrast with other octocrallia C. Therefore, tissue preparation for electron microscopic investigations can be performed.

The presence of a calyx such as the theca of hydroids, in which the polyps may be completely retracted, is conspicuous. The calyx consists of three layers. The structure of the basal layer suggests massive collagen. The body wall is connected with the calyx by living desmocytes. The histology of the oral disc and the actinopharynx is identical. The ventral side of the polyps bears the siphonoglyph. Below the pharynx the inner edges of the mesenteries are free and form the mesenterial filaments.

The two ventral mesenteries differ from the others; the one is long and exhibits a large and heavily flagellated filament, the other is short and lacks a filament. The muscular system is represented by gastrodermal circular fibres in the body wall and by radial and longitudinal fibres in the septa; a large septal retractor muscle is missing.

The sperm cells of Patella coerulea Patellacea , Monodonta turbinata, and Gibbula tumida Trochacea were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy. Their head contains an apical acrosome and a roundish nucleus followed by 4 or 5 mitochondria and a centriolar apparatus which consists of two centrioles, one of which bears a flagellum.

The sperm cells of Monodonta and Gibbula are very similar to each other and differ mainly in size; Patella exhibits more differences very small acrosome, subacrosomal space, variable number of spherical mitochondria origin of spermic dimorphism? The development of the sperm cells shows no peculiarities. Elastolysen und Hauterkrankungen mit Verlust der elastischen Fasern. Diese im Mittelalter neu erprobte Form basierte auf der Entdeckung des Blutkreislaufes durch William Harvey Examples for genetic engineering are the transfer of nuclei between cells of higher animals and the introduction of heterologous DNA into bacteria by means of plasmids.

The former approach will help to establish new ways in animal breeding, the latter provides bacterial cells that produce proteins of medical importance. The moral justification of related studies in man is still open, but the possible risks of gene technology can be coped with by adhering to proper safety regulations.

USA Machtstruktur verstehen | wirwollenkeinenkrieg

Rede und Gesinnung Speech and Ways of Thinking. Analyzes some of the basic ideas in Georg Franklin's book "Versuch einer neuen Lehre von den vornehmsten Gegenstanden der deutschen Sprachlehre; nach den Regeln der Vernunftlehre in sechs Abhandlungen verfasst" and compares them to those of such modern linguists and philosophers a s Searle, Austin and Wunderlich. Concludes that…. Provides the answers to common questions about the Uniform National Discharge Standards, including what they are, how discharges were evaluated, what vessels are covered by the regulations and how states have been involved.

Migration und Flucht als Forschungsthemen der Geographie. Eine Standortbestimmung. It is argued that film and representation in general does not merely reflect a preceding reality; it also actively serves to construct it. It is shown how Scott's film privileges one particular perspective on an actual event and how this point of view is objectified and installed in the memory of Western media culture.

What potential implications does an increased blurring of fact and fiction in the representation of war have? What are the consequences for political and pedagogical practice? What role can cultural studies play in these processes?

Shirley-Visions of Reality

Common Market assistance. At most places there is now electricty and piped water. European Common Market. In Greenland the vote was 2. Six other aerospace companies also are maturing launch vehicle and spacecraft designs under CCDev2, including Alliant Techsystems Inc. For more information, visit www.

Atomares Wettrüsten im Kalten Krieg

Image credit: Space Exploration Technologies. For accurate planning of vertical borehole heat exchanger systems, knowledge of thermo-physical ground parameters is critical. This study reports laboratory-measured thermal conductivity and diffusivity values of Mesozoic sandstones Lower and Middle Buntsandstein from four wells. The measurements were made on drill core using an optical scanning method.

The mean thermal conductivities of the sandstones range between 2. The mean thermal diffusivity values range between 1. Thermal properties are closely related to the petrography and lithostratigraphy of the sandstones. Additionally, three temperature correction methods were applied for the purpose of evaluating the comparative accuracy and the correction schemes with respect to local in-situ conditions. J Geophys Res, , are most suited for the respective sandstone data set. The 36 letters edited in this contribution touch on Emil O. Some complementing passages about background subjects are incorporated, viz.

Emil O. Urban areas are a focus of increasing conflict with regard to water use and water protection. Many of these contaminants are related to human behaviour and activity, such as pharmaceuticals, personal care products collectively PPCPs and endocrine-active substances, and are increasingly found in urban water systems. However, the behaviour and the effects of these contaminants in the environment have been widely unknown until now. Consequently, it is important to pay more attention to such substances and to explore new integrated methodologies including flux calculations as well as chemical and biological investigations for determining the impact of human activities on urban water systems and on processes within the urban watershed.

The overall goal is to assess the risks to humans and the ecosystem, and to support the development of suitable management strategies.


  • Rommel: Ende einer Legende!
  • Smiling Back.
  • Why.

Critical Reviews in Mathematics Education. Materialien und Studien, Band 9. Four papers are presented which view research in mathematics education from different perspectives. Reviewed dataset that also includes post-reprocessed level1 and level2 data files from November to May refer to "Additional Information". In doing so, they have not only departed from the Soviet-style education model, but also recognised that education constitutes a key issue in competition.

Despite some economic problems, the education reforms in these countries have been regarded as part of a major effort at integrating themselves into the European sphere of knowledge. Many of the efforts and measures in education policy envisaged and carried out since the systemic change occurred have led not only to revitalizing national educational heritages, but also to the independent adoption of other European and international trends and topics in educational discourse.

Thereby, these states have proved to be considerably more innovative and flexible than the "older" members of the EU. The prospect of being taken up into the EU has probably helped accelerate the entire process. The present study focuses on some key overarching developments in the educational landscape of states in Central and Eastern Europe, even as it is apparent that these are proceeding along different paths at different speeds.

Comparison of hydraulic and chemical properties of sediments from flush- and core drillings in the area of Peine Germany. Because of financial constraints, investigations of nitrate metabolism are often based on disturbed borehole samples. It is arguable, however, whether disturbed samples are suitable for these types of investigations.

Disadvantages of disturbed samples in comparison to undisturbed core samples are well known and include possible contamination of the sample by mud additives, destruction of the sediment formation and the insecurity concerning the correct depth allocation. In this study, boreholes were drilled at three locations to a maximum depth of 50 m. The extracted samples, as intact sediment cores and drill cuttings, were studied with regard to chemical and hydraulic parameters of the aquifer sediments. The results show: 1. At the beginning of the 18th century U.

Junius tried unsuccessfully to collect and publish the most important manuscripts of Johannes Kepler. Hansch pursued this plan until the end of his life. The result was only one volume with unpublished letters which appeared in Hydraulic and thermal soil Parameter combined with TEM data at quaternary coastal regions.

Global SF6 emission estimates inferred from atmospheric observations - a test case for Kyoto reporting. Sulphur hexafluoride SF6 is one of the strongest greenhouse gases per molecule in the atmosphere. SF6 emissions are also one of the six greenhouse gases targeted for reduction under the Kyoto Protocol.

Here we present a long-term data set of globally distributed high-precision atmospheric SF6 observations which show an increase in mixing ratios from near zero in the s to a global mean value of 6. Because of its long atmospheric lifetime of around years, the accumulation of SF6 in the atmosphere is a direct measure of its global emissions: Analysis of our long-term data records implies a decrease of global SF6 sources after , most likely due to emission reductions in industrialised countries.

However, after the global SF6 source increases again, which is probably due to enhanced emissions from transition economies such as in China and India. This clearly shows the importance and need for atmospheric top-down validation of Kyoto reporting which is only feasible with a dense world-wide observational network for greenhouse and other trace gases. Heinz 1 , D. Osusko 1 , E. Cuevas 2 , A. Engel 3 , J. Ilmberger 1 , R. Langenfelds 4 , B. Neininger 5 , C. Rohden 1 , L. Steele 4 , A. Varlagin 6 , R.

Zeitung: NSA sammelt Millionen Bilder für Gesichtserkennung

Weller 7 , D. Worthy 8 , S. Sozialindex und gewichtenregeling. In Germany and the Netherlands spatial information about the social structure of the inhabitants is used for the coordination of financial and human resources in the local school-system. The aim is to reduce educational inequalities by taking the social context of the schools into account. The article explains two approaches. In North Rhine-Westphalia Germany a so called Sozialindex is used to distribute additional teachers to municipalities with difficult social surroundings.

The Dutch government uses an instrument to give each pupil a weight gewichtenregeling depending on the specific educational background. Combined with an evaluation of the school location an additional budget, if necessary, will be payed. Propeller-tip geometries as well as the radial